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municipal rights in 1453. Jewish merchants settled there in the early 16th century, and by the 1630s
they actively participated in the fairs at Lublin and L'vov. In 1565 King Sigismund II Augustus granted
Jews equal rights and forbade market days to be held on the Sabbath. The Council of Four Lands
sometimes met in Tyszowce and discussed autonomous governance of communities, independent
choice of rabbis, guardianship of orphans, marriage arrangements, intercession with the government,
and financial support for Jews in Eretz Israel. In 1649 and 1655-57, the Jewish populations suffered
from the armies of Czarniecki and Chmielnicki. Jews were living in the party of the city called Ostrow.
In 1571, there were 31 Jewish families living in Tyszowce. In 1630, Tyszowce numbered 1,420 people,
of whom 280 were Jewish (19%). In 1765, 925 Jews living there paid the poll tax. In 1815 the city was
included in Congress Poland, and from 1823-1862 the Russian authorities limited Jewish settlement
in the area because of its proximity to the Austrian border. The 732 Jews living there in 1827 comprised
34% of the total population. In 1857 there were 956 Jews (36%) and in 1897-98, there were 851 Jews
(85%); in 1921, 2,454 Jews made up slightly more than half of the city population. Between the world
wars all the Jewish parties were well represented and there was an active Jewish community life.
Because of the Jewish population, Tyszowce became the largest center of butchery to the east of L'vov.
In the 18th century, Jews in the city engaged in trades like shoemaking, pottery, and commerce. In the
inter-war period, a cinema was established in Tyszowce by a Jew, Mejer Szek, and a Pole, Kazimierz
Sikorski. Mejer Szek also owned a tavern in the town square. Jewish-owned restaurants by Sinai Szek
and Jankiel Glik were located at the entrance to the town square, on both sides of the street.
On the outbreak of World War II, there were about 3,800 Jews in Tyszowce. In September, 1939 the Red
Army entered the city but withdrew after a short time, in accord with the Soviet-German agreement on
the partition line. About 1,000 Jews left the city for the east with the withdrawing Red Army. The Germans
army occupied the city at the beginning of October 1939. The Nazis established a Judenrat composed of
10 people in the spring of 1940, headed by Zelig Cukier. The Nazis also set up the Jewish police, headed
by Mejer Szek. About 150 Tyszowce Jews were deported to the Zamosc labor camp. They worked on
reinforcing border fortifications near Lubycza Krolewska. Jews from Warsaw, Otwock and Lublin were
brought to Tyszowce by the Nazis to engage in forced labor on roads and river control. The Nazi head
of the military police in the city, Ernst Schultz, was unbearably cruel toward the Jewish population.
In fall of 1940, the Nazis set up a forced labor camp in Tyszowce. Jews were used as labor on the Huczwa
River. As a result of poor sanitary conditions in the camp, diseases rose up, including a typhus
epidemic. The camp was closed in fall 1941. During the night of April 16, 1942, the Nazis launched
a mass execution of the Tyszowce Jews. They were brought to the square near the former public bath,
where several hundred were shot. The Nazis threw the corpses into a huge ditch. In May of 1942
about 1,500 Jews were deported to the Belzec Death Camp and another 800 were sent to the Sobibor Death
Camp. Those who tried to protest were killed on the spot. A small number of Jews were able to escape to the
forests. For the remaining Jews, a ghetto was established in the area between the old arm of the Huczwa
River and Zamlynie. About 600 to 1,000 Jews were put there, including several Jews from Czech-
oslvakia. A new Judenrat was established, headed by Fishlieber (Fiszleber), a German Jew who was
cruel towards the local Jewish population and collaborated with the Nazis. Near to the ghetto was a
a municipal detention house in which the Nazis kept several dozen Jews for weeks without any food.
In October of 1942, the ghetto was liquidated. Of those who had survived -- around 92 Jews -- 70 were
sent to Belzec Death Camp and the other 22 were shot in the ghetto. The Jews of Tyszowce were no more.
The first records of a wooden synagogue in Tyszowce dates back to 1571. It burnt down in 1717. A masonry
synagogue was located on the western side of the town square. On September 13, 1939, the synagogue
was destroyed in a fire. In autumn of 1939, the synagogue was blown up by the Nazis. The rubble from the
desecrated synagogue was used for road paving (slave labor). The old Jewish cemetery in Tyszowce was
set up at the end of the 16th century. It is located in Koscielna Street. The cemetery is surrounded by a
brick wall on one side and a wooden fence on the other. During the Holocaust, shooting ditches were formed
there. The Nazis took down the brick wall and used the bricks to build a stable for horses. Gravestones were
used for pavements and footbridges. Tombstones were also used to pave the road to the nearby town of
Laszczow. No tombstones are left at the old cemetery. A preschool was constructed in the area where
the cemetery was located after the war. In 1988, a commemorative stone was put in the cemetery to
commemorate a well-known rabbi named Ben Josef. The new Jewish cemetery in Tyszowce was built in
the late 19th century. It is located outside of the city, about 50 mi. northwest of the road from Tyszowce
to Tuczapy. The Nazis devastated the cemetery. Fourteen tombstones have survived, of which the oldest
dates to 1884. The tombstones have visible carvings and inscriptions in Hebrew. In 1988, thanks to Dawid
Laks and Abraham Borg, a fence was built and the cemetery was renovated. Four matzevahs were erected
and a monument to commemorate the Holocaust victims was erected. The cemetery fence is made of
metal spans and there is the Star of David on the gate. Ashes were also brought from the Belzec death camp.
Northwest of the synagogue there was a house of learning (Bet Hamidrash), adjoined by a Hasidic shtiebel
(small house of prayer). The other shtiebelekh were scattered around the market square. Cheders were also
located in the market square. On the banks of the river channel, there was a mikveh (Jewish ritual bath).
The head Nazi in Tyszowce and nearby Komarow was named Ernst Heinrich Schulz (Schultz).
A handful of Jews from Komarow and Tyszowce managed to organize a resistance movement by
creating a combat unit in the woods between the town towns. They gathered a few weapons, bought
from Poles, and carried out attacks on the Germans. Among the fighters were Chaja Helfman (killed),
Yeshayahu Sztengel (killed) -- who later took part in the Warsaw ghetto uprising, and Tzvi Finger.
In 1937, American Phillip Putter returned to his home town of Tishevits with his 8mm camera to film
street scenes and daily life. In 1982, the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research invited two of Philip's
former neighbors in Tyszowce, Esther Kizel (Kisel) and Paya Rosenzweig, to view his film and
to talk about the people that appear in it. The film is available online via YIVO.
Please review the site content below. Zachor - We Remember.
[Surnames] [History] [Tyszowce Yizkor Book (Hebrew)]
[Moving Picture Footage, 1937] [Moving Pictures, Part II]
[Political/Cultural Life] [Wikipedia - Tyszowce]
[List of Martyrs] [List of Martyrs 1]
[Cemeteries] [Old Synagogue]
[Yahad-in-Unum Investigation in Tyszowce, 2012]
[Pinkas Tishevits - Yizkor Book (readable online)]
Click to subscribe to Tyszowce
Learn more at the Belzec Remembrance Project
A map of the village.
The family on the left is that of the shochet, Avraham Sztern. Right side unknown.
Unidentified people from Tyszowce. In top left photo, the man in the center (top row) is Jakob Eliezar Katz.
These people are somehow connected to Malka Borg and her aunt Anna Kershenbaum Borg.
These people are somehow connected to Malka Borg and her aunt Anna Kershenbaum Borg.
Bluma Fuks, nee Sztruman, Israel Fuks, Fruma Fuks; Bottom row: Moshe, Hadasa,
and Chaim Fuks. Israel Fuks was from Komarow. The family lived in Tyszowce before the war.
Efraim Cukier/Zuker, born abt. 1890, and his family. His wife was Bina Zinger/Zynger of Krylow.
Efraim and Bina had at least two children: Yerachamiel Cuker, born 1914, and Bajla Cukier, born 1922.
Both Efram and his son were merchants in Tyszowce. The family was murdered in 1942.
1929 Polish business directory listing for Tyszowce.
They were brought for proper burial in 1963.
Survivors from Tyszowce.
Join the Tyszowce group on Facebook!
City of Tyszowce:
Article: Ernst Schulz, Nazi of Komarow/Tyszowce
Article: Moshe Laks, Holocaust Survivor
"A Kheyder in Tyszowce" by Yekiel Shtern
Alphabetical Register of Tyszowce Victims
Belzec Death Camp
Excerpt on Tyszowce from a book by David Roskies
First Tishiritzer Benevolent Society - Staten Island, New York
History of Tyszowce Jewish Community, 16th-18th Centuries
International Jewish Cemetery Project: Tyszowce
Isaac Beshevis Singer's Tribute to Tyszowce
Old Tyszowce Pictures
ORDER Pinkas Tishivits (or order from another location)
Pinkas Hakehillot Polin: Tyszowce
The Shtetl Book by Diane Roskies (includes Tyszowce)
Tyszowce Jewish Discussion List
Tyszowce Yizkor Books Online (no English)
Tyszowce Yizkor Book Necrology
Families of Tyszowce:
Rabbis of Tyszowce:
Avraham David Ber Moshe, rabbi until 1746
Tzvi Hersz Baschko (surname also listed as Zamosc), rabbi until 1771
Natan Nute HaKohen Szapira, 1773
Zachariah Mendel Yaskis (Yaskes), 18th century
Yehuda Leibush Segal Ettinger, 18th century
Abraham Jakob Gelernter and his son Dawid, 1807-1814
Jakob Eichenbaum, 1815
Abraham Braff, mid-19th century
Dawid Wahl, 1866
Moszek Icek Wielwelewicz, 1881
Shimshon Mordechai Josef Glanc
Yehuda Leibus HaKohen Adamszik
Moshe Yehuda Berger, cantor
Yehoshua Flaks, cantor
Lejb Aryeh Glanc, rabbi up to the Holocaust
Rabbi Tzi Hirsch Baschko
Sender Sidney Licht
Arnold Slucki (Aron Kreiner)
Yankel Shtern (Jacob Ziper)
Survivors of Tyszowce:
Mala Biterman Lader
Chawa Biterman Polik
Yaakov Folk (Polik)
Sara Folk Nussbaum
Roza Garber (liberated from Bergen-Belsen, 1945)
Icek "Izaak" Gelber (liberated from Dachau, 1945)
Ellen Hamer Herszenson (testimony)
Moshe Laks (Morris Lax)
Henia Dwora Marder
Zvi Naor (video testimony)
Paya Cwilich Rosenzweig
Israel Hirsch Sztern
- Jozef and Marianna Holtzer employed 12 Jews at Celestynow near Rachanie.
The 14 of them were murdered on November 2, 1942.
Jewish Records Indexing Poland - Tyszowce
Jewish Vital Records in the Polish State Archives
Remember Your Family:
The DNA Shoah Project: Connecting Descendants
Central Judaica Database - Museum of History of Polish Jews
Grandchildren of Holocaust Survivors on Facebook
Guide to the YIVO Archives
Holocaust News/Events from Generations of the Shoah Int'l
Holocaust Survivors and Victims Database
JewishGen Family Finder
JewishGen Holocaust Database
JRI-Poland: Search for Your Family
Museum of History of Polish Jews Introduction
Yad Vashem: Search for Your Family
Yad Vashem: Submit Names of Your Family Members
Yad Vashem Requests Photos of Shoah Survivors and Families
U.S.: Aaron, LublinJewish@gmail.com