INDEX/TABLE OF CONTENTS:|
1. Jews in the Polish Partisans: An Overview
2. Introduction: Definition of Terms
3. What Role Did Jews Play in the Polish Partisan Groups?
JEWS IN THE POLISH PARTISANS: AN OVERVIEW
Shmuel Krakowski, in his scholarly work "The War of the Doomed", published in Israel, has an important chapter dedicated to Jews who fought in Polish partisan units during the Holocaust. He notes that there were Jews in almost all of the fighting organizations of the Polish underground, each with different situations. Jews who fought in the AL (Armia Ludowa), included the following types: 1) Activists of the Polish Communist Party, the principal founders of the AL; 2) Jews who escaped from ghettos due to their ties with Polish People's Republic members; 3) Professionals and experts who were called on the by the guard's command; 4) Partisans from Jewish units of the People's Guard who, following the destruction of their units, were transferred to Polish units; and 5) Jewish fugitives from camps who, after many hardships, succeeding in reaching a Polish partisan unit.
In contrast, the AK (Armia Krajowa), the Home Army, was not Jewish-friendly. Only small numbers of Jewish partisans joined the AK, according to Krakowski -- generally Jews who hid on the "Aryan" side and were accepted into the Polish underground as Poles. He notes that many Jews lost their lives due to the persistent antisemitism of the members of the AK. Krakowski's conclusion is supported by Isaac Kowalski, who concludes: "Thousands of Jews were murdered by the rightist factions of the official Polish underground. In eastern Poland, in Byelorussia, and sometimes in other areas as well, groups of Polish rightist guerillas took an active role in the killing of many Jewish families and partisans in the forest. Among their victims was also a group of Jewish fighters who had succeeded in breaking out of the Warsaw Ghetto at the time of the uprising, had reached the forests, and launched guerrilla warfare against the Nazis (source: Anthology on Armed Jewish Resistance, 1939-1945; vol. 1, 1984).
Historian Joshua D. Zimmerman provides a different conclusion. He writes, "The Armia Krajowa units welcomed Jews into their ranks, supplied arms and money and training to Jewish partisan units, organized an ultimately unsuccessful effort to breach the walls of the Warsaw Ghetto at the start of the 1943 Uprising, condemned Poles who blackmailed Jews and looted Jewish property, rescued Jews at the risk of AK members’ lives, helped to found the Committee to Aid the Jews (Zegota), maintained a sometimes-on/sometimes-off relationship with the ZOB, sent members clandestinely into ghettos and concentration camps to ascertain the life-threatening situations, and publicized the Jewish plight through its underground press of the government-in-exile. But AK units also excluded Jews, murdered Jews, and fostered anti-Semitic views and spread anti-Semitic calumnies" (source: The Polish Underground and the Jews).
INTRODUCTION: DEFINITION OF TERMS
The Armia Ludowa (AL), called the "People's Army," was an underground military organization created as an armed formation of the Polish Workers' Party (PPR), formed by renaming the People’s Guard (Gwardia Ludowa). The task of the AL was anti-German diversion in favor of the Red Army, the participation in organizing and defending the system of government created by the PPR (the State National Council and field councils), and the takeover of power in liberated zones. When it was formed in spring, 1942 it was weak with few arms, and about 1/2 of the partisan forces were Jewish detachments. Weapons used by the AL were bought or captured from peasants or parachuted by Soviet aircraft.
The AL grew, and although most Jews were no longer alive in 1943, the People’s Army had 6,000 to 8,000 fighters in mid-1944. Brigades of several hundreds people, arising from the expansion of branches and guerrilla battalions, were directly subordinated to the AL Major Command (Brigade of the People’s Army). The People’s Army concentrated mainly on destroying the German communication lines, especially at the back of the Soviet-German front in order to support the Red Army. It attacked the Nazi terror apparatus, organized economic sabotage and fought the pacification and anti-guerrilla expeditions. About 500 members of the People’s Army participated in the Warsaw Uprising of 1944.
The Narodowe Sily Zbrojne (National Armed Forces, or NSZ) was created on September 20, 1942, as a result of the merger of the Military Organization Lizard Union (Organizacja Wojskowa Związek Jaszczurczy) and part of the National Military Organization (Narodowa Organizacja Wojskowa). At its maximum strength in 1943-1944 the NSZ reached between 70,000 and 75,000 members, making it the third largest organization of the Polish resistance (after the Home Army and the Bataliony Chlopskie). NSZ units participated in the Warsaw Uprising. From November 1944 to mid-1947, during the period of armed anti-Communist insurgency, between 500 and 1,500 Jews were murdered in Poland by NSZ forces ("The Eagle Unbound" by Halik Kochanski, p. 550).
In late September of 1939, the Polish Victory Service was established; this evolved into the Union for Armed Struggle, which in turn became the Armia Krajowa (Home Army, or AK) in February 1942. Later, most of the other Polish underground armies were assimilated into the AK, and by early 1944 it numbered 250,000 to 350,000 members. The AK's main goal was to prepare for action against the Germans, and at the end of the German occupation, carry out general armed revolt until victory. Then the London-based Polish Government-in-Exile would return and assume control.
The AK holds a near-sacred position in the hearts and minds of many Poles, representing their national counterpart to the Allied struggle -- much like La Resistance does for the French.
Although few Jews served in the AK, in February 1942 the AK Information and Propaganda Office created the Section for Jewish Affairs, to collect information about the situation of the Jewish population. The office wrote reports that were sent to government officials in London, and made contact between Polish and Jewish military organizations. The AK also aided the Jews during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. The AK led the Warsaw Polish Uprising, which broke out on August 1, 1944 and was only put down on October 2, 1944; and participated in Partisan battles with the Nazis.
WHAT ROLE DID JEWS PLAY IN THE AL, AK, AND NSZ?
Speaking about his experiences in the woods as a partisan, Jewish partisan and Holocaust survivor Frank Blaichman recalls: "It was around September, 1943 when we learned that on September 9, a unit of the Polish National Armed Forces, the NSZ, had killed 26 Jewish partisans in the Borowa Forest, south of Lublin. They had thrown greandes into the bunkers when the partisans slept." In response, according to Blaichman, the Armia Ludowa composed a song in memory of the lost partisans: "On the 9th of September, everyone should remember when the NSZ stabbed the People's Army in the back," one of the lines goes. The song fails to mention that the fighters were all Jews (source: Rather Die Fighting by Frank Blaichman).
Jewish partisan Harold Werner (Hersh Zimmerman) recalled an incident when around 100 members of the AK surrounded a small band of 15 Jewish partisans near Siedlce. The leader of the Jewish group, Yanek, explained that they were all Polish patriots and their common enemy was the Germans. The leader of the Armia Krajowa replied that the Armia Ludowa was working with Jews and Communists and therefore were the enemy. Based on this harsh reply and the previous reputation of the AK, the Jewish partisans fired and attempted to flee. Only two of the 15 group members survived the massacre (source: Fighting Back by Harold Werner).
Werner continues with a second story: "In spring, 1944, a small group of the Grynszpan partisans went to Maryanka near Wlodawa to obtain food. On their way back to the woods, they were ambushed by an Armia Krajowa unit. Chaim Barbanel, one of the Jewish partisans, was murdered. Not to be outdone, the Grynszpan partisans determined who it was that informed on them, and that individual paid for his crime with his life."
According to Dr. Michael Temczyn (Temchin), a Holocaust survivor and physician, "A Jew had to be very careful not to fall into the hands of the so-called 'National Armed Forces' (NSZ). These were Polish Fascists who hated Hitler but shared his ideas about Jews." Dr. Temczyn joined a group of Russian and Polish partisans in late 1942 in the area around Hrubieszow. They knew he was Jewish and accepted him anyway. Later, this group disbanded and those who remained joined a group led by Konstanty Mastelarz. This was among the first groups to join the Armia Ludowa (The People's Army), in May 1943. Temczyn had little difficulty due to his intellect and reputation as a skilled physician (source: The Witch Doctor).
Jews in the Armia Ludowa, perhaps in a better position than Jews in the Armia Krajowa, did not have it easy either. In summer, 1943, a plan was drawn up for the destruction of Abraham Bron's Jewish partisan unit by the commander of Battalion number 4 of the Armia Ludowa. After an incident in the AK in which Jews were murdered, the Bron unit survivors were forced to leave the Armia Ludowa, although eventually they were persuaded to rejoin the Armia Ludowa.
Speaking of the antisemitic attitudes of many average Poles, Frank Blaichman writes in his book that he wished to bestow a special award to Wanda Dudek, a Polish Catholic in the Lublin region whom he credits for saving his life. Blaichman writes, "I asked her if she would like to be listed among the Righteous Among Nations and she replied 'no' because she feared that the Jew-haters in the area would find out and her sons would suffer" (source: Rather Die Fighting, p. 194).
organizations of the Polish underground. Jewish partisan Dr. Temczyn is in this photo with General Michal "Rola" Zymierski (top,
center) of the Armia Ludowa. Top, from left: Jan Czechowicz, Stanislaw Kotek-Agroszewski, Zymierski, Grab Widerkowski,
Stanislaw Szot. Bottom, from left Waclaw Czyzewski, Cien, Dr. Michael Temczyn. Photo from 1944 in Parczew.