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At various points throughout history, it has been considered a part of Poland.
The current estimated population is around 37,690. According to the census of 1897 it had a
population of 13,785, including 5,608 Jews. In 1650 there were 47 Jewish and 141 Christian
households. In 1931 the Jewish population rose to 7,364. On the eve of the Nazi invasion, about
12,000 Jews lived in Dubno, including more than 4,000 refugees from Poland. When Germany
invaded Poland in September 1939, hundreds of thousands of Jewish and non-Jewish refugees
fled the advancing German army into eastern Poland, hoping that the Polish army would halt the
German advance in the west. Many of the refugees fled without a specific destination in mind. They
traveled on foot or by any available transport -- bicycles, carts, or horses -- clogging roads to the east.
Most took only what they could carry. Some refugees could not escape Poland before Soviet and
German authorities established their control of the country. By the time some refugees reached the
German-Soviet demarcation line as well as Poland's borders with her neighbors they found both
closed and heavily guarded. Some refugees attempted to sneak across, often at great danger. Those
caught trying to cross between occupation zones or trying to flee without papers faced arrest and
arbitrary violence at the hands of both Soviet and German border guards.
The Nazi occupation of Dubno started on June 25, 1941 and remained until February 9, 1944. The
Dubno Ghetto was created on the first day of Passover, 1942. The Dubno Ghetto existed for less than
seven months, from April 2 to Oct. 23, 1942. The ghetto was closed so the residents were not given
much opportunity for resistance. Some did resist with the help of non-Jewish friends. Others did so
with false papers. And others survived bitter cold and hunger in fields by themselves, in groups, or with
the partisans. Within the Dubno Ghetto, all Jews were identified by the Star of David on an armband.
With 12,000 people in a small area, the ghetto became overcrowded and hunger/sickness were abundant.
In Dubno's killing fields, more than 1,000 Jews were shot in July and August of 1941. This murderous
act was carried out by a SD unit from Rowne (Rivne), and was 200 meters from the Catholic cemetery in Dubno.
After being driven into the ghetto in April 1942, 8,000 Jews from the ghetto were murdered in a series of aktions
between May and October 1942. More than half of its residents were slaughtered in May of 1942, even while
some of the residents were still settling into the ghetto. On July 22, 1941 Einsatzkommando 5 killed 83 Jews
in the Jewish cemetery in Dubno. The Dubno ghetto was liquidated on October 24, 1942. The surviving 1,000
Jews were ordered to appear at Rybnaya Street in Dubno. There, about 40 Jews hid in the cellar of one building.
A man named Anikeev informed on these Jews, but when he was sent down to the cellar to bring them out,
one of the Jews killed him with an ax. From this point, the last Jews of Dubno were taken on foot to the airport
in the suburb of Surmicze, where they were all killed and buried. On February 9, 1944, the Red Army
liberated Dubno. Around 300 Jews survived the Dubno Ghetto. By 2000, around 10 Jews resided there.
of the actions against the Jews of Dubno, it was still considered part of Poland. In 1942 a large
ghetto was established in Dubno. Roughly 12,000 men, women, and children were put into the
ghetto. Most were shot at mass executions by the SS Einsatzgruppe, paramilitary death squads,
outside the town town. A detailed description of the mass murders was provided by a righteous
non-Jew named Hermann Friedrich Graebe at the Nuremberg trials. A young German officer
of the German Infanterieregiment 9, Axel von dem Bussche, witnessed the executions of 3,000
Jews at the former site of the Dubno airport. Soon after he joined the resistance movement.
The S.S. in Dubno included Wilhelm Altenloh and Einsatzkommando 5, who are estimated to have
murdered more than 150,000 people in Wolyn district during the Shoah. The leaders of this unit were
SS-Oberfuhrer Erwin Schulz (June-August 1941) and SS-Sturmbannfuhrer August Meier (Sept. 1941-
Jan. 1942). Erwin Schulz was sentenced to a short prison term, while August Meier killed himself in 1960.
If you know a survivor of Dubno, please contact us. Please review the site content below.
Zachor - We Remember.
[Dubno Jewish Surnames & Researchers]
[Yizkor Book] [Yizkor Book Translation Project]
[Dubno Photos] [Map of Dubno]
[Dubno Memorials to the Victims of the Shoah] [List of Survivors]
[Jewish Dubno Today]
Click to subscribe to Dubno-Jewish
Interior of the Great Synagogue of Dubno.
Pictures from S. An-sky's Ethnographic Expeditions."
Poor children of Dubno, undated photo. It appeared in Jewish Nursery, from Exhibition III.
Photo of some friends in Dubno, Oct. 1930.
Photo of some friends in Dubno, Oct. 1930.
Motel the Butcher, from Dubno. Pre-war.
Tauba Krochmalnik (Tauba Biterman), survivor of the Dubno Ghetto.
The Dubno Synagogue as it looks today.
Polish students visit the remnants of the Dubno Synagogue in 2012.
Dubno Ghetto Links:
About the S.S. Einsatzgruppen
- Witness to S.S. Murder of 3,000 Jews at Dubno Airport
(from witness Axel von dem Bussche)
- Witness Testimony: Mass Murder of Dubno
- Witness to S.S. Einstazgruppen Special Forces Actions
(from witness Hermann Graebe)
Survivors of the Dubno Ghetto:
Tauba Biterman (see also: Video clip; Holocaust Testimony)
Sam Genirberg (see also: Survivor Testimony of Sam)
Sonia Reich (see also: Prisoner of Her Past)
Tova Teper Kaplan
Other Dubno Survivors:
- Pinkus Zyskind, Jewish partisan
Victims of Dubno:
- Yehezkel and Sonya German
- Ruchla, Mikhael, Srul, and Chaim Krokhmalnik
Families of Dubno:
- Krochmalnik family
- Chasdaj, Lipin, Gitelman families
- Halberstadt, Hirszorn, Salonczik families
- Dubno Residents Buried in New York/New Jersey
- There was a shul on the lower east side of Manhattan called:
Chevrah Ohel Jacob Anshei Dubna. It had 45 members; President,
Alexander Wasserman and Secretary, Wolf Chackes
Righteous Gentiles of Dubno:
- Czerewaniow family
- Kucharewicz couple (contact the author for details)
- Kwarciak family
- Wierzbicki couple
Notable Residents of Dubno:
- Joel Berish Falkowitz
Books About the Dubno Ghetto:
- Sheryl Needle Cohn, "The Boy in the Suitcase", chapter one. Available online.
- Douglas Huneke, "The Moses of Rovno" (Dodd Mead, 1st edition, 1985)
- Sam Genirberg, "Among the Enemy" (Robertson Publishing, 2012)
- Roger Moorehouse, "Killing Hitler", chapter 7 (Bantam, 2007)
- H.Z. Margolioth, "Dubna rabati: Toldot ha-'ir Dubna ... gedole ha-'ir" (Warsaw, 1910)
- Moshe Rosman, "Dubno in the Wake of Khmel'nyts'kyi" (2003): pages 239-255
- Samuil Gil, "Krov ikh i segodnya govorit" (New York, 1995)
- Avraham Cohen, "Dubno: Kehilah she-hayetah ve-enenah" (Tel Aviv, 1984)
- Ya'akov Adini, ed., "Dubno: Sefer zikaron" (Tel Aviv, 1966), in Hebrew and Yiddish
- Shmuel Spector, ed., "Dubno" in Pinkas ha-kehilot: Polin, vol. 5, pages 55-61 (Jerusalem, 1990)
Remember Your Family
Wolyn Region: Online Guide to Murder Sites of Jews
JewishGen Family Finder
JewishGen Ukraine SIG
JewishGen Ukraine Database
JRI-Poland: Search for Your Family
Yad Vashem: Search for Your Family
Yad Vashem: Submit Names of Your Family Members