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Hrubieszów is situated only 18 km. from the border checkpoint in Zosin and 5 km.
(in a straight line) from the border with Ukraine over the Bug River. The first mention of the
Jewish community is in 1440. From 1648 to 1657, there was a Cossack war of liberation
from Poland called the Khmelnytsky Uprising, during which many Jews of the city perished.
Twenty-seven Jewish houses and the smaller synagogue were destroyed in a fire in 1736.
The leaders of the community and its rabbis were active on the Council of the Four Lands.
The first Jewish-run hospital in Poland was inaugurated in 1818, a new synagogue in 1874,
and an old age home in 1905. The Hasidim were active from the early 19th century, and
between WWI and the Holocaust, the Zionists, Bund, and Agudat Israel were active in the city.
There was also an old brick synagogue as well as six private houses of prayer in the city.
The Jewish population numbered 709 in 1765 and grew to 3,276 in 1856. By 1897 the Jewish
population was 5,352 out of 10,636 total. The Jewish population before the war was 11,750.
The Nazis entered on Sept. 15, 1939, and immediately organized a series of pogroms. Ten
days later they withdrew and the Soviet Army occupied the city, but after a Soviet-German
agreement the city was returned to Nazi hands. That this point in 1939, over 2,000 Jews left
with the withdrawing Soviet Army and fled to Russia. On December 1, 1939, all Jewish males
aged 15 to 60 were ordered to assemble on the Wigun common, a cattle-grazing area. About
1,000 gathered there. All of their monies and valuables were taken from them at this time. The
next day, 1,000 Jews from Hrubieszów and 1,100 from nearby Chelm were led on a death
March to the Bug River, where 1,500 Jews died. Some of the Death March victims are listed here.
In early 1940, around 6,000 Jews including some refugees were confined to the Hrubieszów
Ghetto. All Jews over the age of 12 were ordered to wear a white armband with a Shield of David
on it. The Nazis appointed a Judenrat of 12 members, including Szmuel Brand, chairman, and
Joel Rabinowicz, deputy chairman. The Judenrat was given the same tasks as in other Jewish
communities: to supply the slave labor, to collect contributions, and to confiscate items of property.
A soup kitchen was opened in the ghetto, as was a hospital with 30 beds. Medicine was given to
the sick. In August, 1940, 500 Jews from Czestochowa arrived in the ghetto. Four labor camps
were established in the vicinity, and each day hundreds of Jews, including young boys and girls,
went off to pave roads, dig ditches, build bridges, and work on Polish farms. On August 13, 1940,
the Nazis -- aided by Polish policemen -- shut 800 Jews into a local school building and kept them
there for three days without food. Some 600 of them were then sent the Belzec Death Camp. The
remaining 200 were sent to dig trenches on the Soviet border. Half of them perished from hunger
and disease. In November, 1941, 300 Jewish deportees from Krakow arrived in Hrubieszów.
In March of 1942, hundreds arrived in the city from Mielec. Jews were forced to give Polish peasants
their remaining possessions in return for food. In June of 1942, Jews concentrated in Belz were
driven in a 31 mile death march to Hrubieszów. In May, 1942 there were 5,690 Jews in the city.
The Judenrat was informed that these Jews would be sent to work in the Pinsk district. Instead, on
June 1-2, 1942, Nazis assisted by Polish policemen assembled 3,049 Jews in the market square,
put them aboard goods wagons and sent them to their deaths in Sobibor. Forty Jews, who resisted
in the market square were shot on the spot. Another 2,000 Jews were deported to the labor camp in
Budzyn. Probably those deemed to be physically fit, who could provide labor, were sent to Budzyn.
A few days later, from June 7-9, the Nazis removed hundreds of remaining Jews from their houses.
Despite resisting, 180 Jews were taken to the cemetery and murdered there. The remainder, among
them Jews from Grabowiec, Uchanie, Dubienka and Bialopole, were taken to the extermination camp
at Sobibor. In command of the elimination of the Jews of the city were the Gestapo Commandant
Weidermann, the Commander of the Gendarmerie Henig, and the Police Officer Dymant (Jewish).
Some 2,500 still remained in the city. They were working at German plants, concentrated in a small
ghetto close to the cemetery. On October 28, 1942, this ghetto too was closed, and most of its
inmates sent to Sobibor. Some 400 Jews who resisted at the time of deportation were annihilated in
the cemetery area. Only 600 young Jews remained. They were sent to a labor camp and employed by
cleaning up the ghetto and in destroying the cemetery. In Sept. of 1943, this labor camp was also
dismantled and the inmates sent to the camp at Budzyn. Others who were still alive may have been
sent to labor camps at Sokal and Dolhobyczow. A handful managed to escape to the woods,
but others perished due to subhuman conditions. Hrubieszów was liberated in July 1944 by
the Red Army. The Nazis destroyed both Jewish synagogues, the cemetery, and private prayer
houses in Hrubieszów. In all, bet. 7,000 and 9,000 Hrubieszów Jews were murdered.
Please donate to the Jewish Records Index - Poland translation of Hrubieszów records.
Without your support, we can't appropriately memorialize our families.
Please review the site content below. Zachor - We Remember.
[History] [Surnames] [Holocaust]
[Wikipedia - Hrubieszów] [Notable Residents]
[Old Cemetery] [New Cemetery]
[March of the Hrubieszow Jews to Sokal]
[List of Hrubieszów Martyrs]
[Sephardim in Hrubieszow]
[Family Research in Southeast Poland]
[Hrubieszów Memorial Foundation in Israel]
Click to subscribe to Hrubieszow
Hrubieszow market, 1925.
Hrubesher Society in NYC in the 1930s. Includes Leib Brustman, bottom row, 3rd
from left, and Moishe Krakower, middle row, 7th from left. Photo courtesy of Rich Brustman.
First Hrubishower Society's 35th Anniversary Banquet, 2nd Ave., NYC - Jan. 13, 1940.
Members of the Hrubieszów Bet Lechem Society, 1905. Front left: David Cukierman; next to him: Mote Cymet. .
Some Hrubieszów residents were fortunate enough to emigrate before the war.
Forced labor in Hrubieszów during the war period.
Jews in the sewing shop of the Hrubieszów Ghetto.
Hrubieszow cemetery, circa 1910-1920.
Four Jewish men exhuming bodies in Hrubieszów after the war.
Hrubieszow native Jakob Biskubicz, one of the Sobibor survivors from the uprising.
His dad (Arie from Dubienka) is pictured in one of the photos above.
Memorial to victims at Hrubieszow Cemetery.
Restored Hrubieszow Jewish Cemetery.
Malkow, Poland -- the site where 50 Jews were buried on the march from Hrubieszow to Sokal.
Zbigniew Nizinski from The Lasting Memory Foundation is working to memorialize these victims.
A memorial at the Budzyn Labor Camp where hundreds of Hrubieszow Jews were sent.
Jews who survived slave labor at Budzyn were sent to Majdanek, Wieliczka, Mielec, or another camp to be murdered.
Pinkas (Yizkor book) committee list, Hrubieszow.
Join the Hrubieszow group on Facebook!
Books about Hrubieszów:
Forbidden Strawberries by Cipora Hurwitz
I Shall Live by Henry Orenstein
Joszko Z Hrubieszowa by Krzysztof Pilarczyk
Our Roots: Shorashim Shelanu by Z. Einat
Pinkas Hrubieszów (Memorial Book of Hrubieszow) by B. Kaplinsky
Testimony of Mayer Megdal
Until We Meet Again by Michael Korenblit
The Young Soapmaker (Testimony) by Leonard and Gertie Lerer
City of Hrubieszów:
Budzyn Labor Camp (includes description from Hrubieszow's Abraham Dichter)
Frumke and Chajke: Jewish Resistance in Hrubieszow
Hrubieszow Genealogy Group (outdated)
Hrubieszow Aerial View from 1943
Hrubieszow Aerial View from 2010
Sephardim from Hrubieszow
Abraham Jakub Stern
Postcard from the Judenrat of Hrubieszow
Lists from Hrubieszów:
First Hrubieshower Sick Benevolent Society
Hrubieszow Death March Victims - "Sefer Ha'Zvaot"
Hrubieszow Ellis Island Records
Hrubieszow Burials in NYC
Surnames in NYC Hrubieszow Burials
Pinkas Committee from 1962 (page 431)
Families of Hrubieszów:
Survivors of Hrubieszów:
Chaim Ajzen (Henry Steele)
Ethel Apel (born Ethel Ajzenkranz)
Matale Blender (testimony)
Michael Finger (Drori)
Regina Franks (nee Sherer)
Nechama Goldberg Kaspi
Helen Jakubowski (video)
Meyer Kornblit (photo)
Leonard (Lejb) and Gertie Lehrer
Chaim (Harry) Nagelsztajn
Fred Orenstein (testimony)
Henry Orenstein (testimony)
Jozefa Karpik Szypulka (non-Jew)
Ruth Tatarko (testimony)
Rabbis of Hrubieszow:
Chaim (Chajke) ber Shmuel Halevi Horowitz, until 1665
Meshulem Feibush ber Menachem Ginzburg, 1667
Yakov Ben Tzvi Hirsz
Avraham Avli ber Beniamin Bones
Yitzhak Charif, 1695
Aryeh Leibush ben Meir Kantschiner
Yoel ben Dawid Katzenellenbogien
Yosef ben Mordechai Katzenellenbogien, 1818
(unknown) Hillel, 1824
Josef Eliezer Gelernter, until 1864
Moshe Klug, 1878
Efraim Zalman Rokach
Izrael Isser Jawic, 1896
Josef Wertheim, 1924-1935
Yochanan Twerski, 1936-1939
Sofia Apteiker (Sarah Freynd)
Avraham Sztern (Stern)
Yosef Almogi, past Israeli Knesset member
Daniel Goldman, Argentinian Rabbi
David Mamet, American playwright
Zalman Shazar, past president of Israel
Hrubieszow Records in Israel
Jewish Records Indexing Poland - Hrubieszów
Jewish Vital Records in the Polish State Archives
Eichmann Trial Transcripts Document Hrubieszów Events
Remember Your Family:
The DNA Shoah Project: Connecting Descendants
Central Judaica Database - Museum of History of Polish Jews
Grandchildren of Holocaust Survivors on Facebook
Guide to the YIVO Archives
Holocaust News/Events from Generations of the Shoah Int'l
Holocaust Survivors and Victims Database
JewishGen Family Finder
JewishGen Holocaust Database
JRI-Poland: Search for Your Family
Museum of History of Polish Jews Introduction
Yad Vashem: Search for Your Family
Yad Vashem: Submit Names of Your Family Members
Yad Vashem Requests Photos of Shoah Survivors and Families
ISRAEL: Aaron Estaron firstname.lastname@example.org
The Israeli Organization of Hrubieszów
U.S.: Aaron, email@example.com