Remember Jewish Hrubieszów - Genealogy Group

Pronunciations: Hrube-ee-esh-ov or Rubeshov

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Hrubieszów is a city in southeast Poland, with a present population of ~18,000.
Hrubieszów is situated only 18 km. from the border checkpoint in Zosin and 5 km.
(in a straight line) from the border with Ukraine over the Bug River. The first mention of the
Jewish community is in 1440. From 1648 to 1657, there was a Cossack war of liberation
from Poland called the Khmelnytsky Uprising, during which many Jews of the city perished.
Twenty-seven Jewish houses and the smaller synagogue were destroyed in a fire in 1736.
The leaders of the community and its rabbis were active on the Council of the Four Lands.
The first Jewish-run hospital in Poland was inaugurated in 1818, a new synagogue in 1874,
and an old age home in 1905. The Hasidim were active from the early 19th century, and
between WWI and the Holocaust, the Zionists, Bund, and Agudat Israel were active in the city.
There was also an old brick synagogue as well as six private houses of prayer in the city.

The Jewish population numbered 709 in 1765 and grew to 3,276 in 1856. By 1897 the Jewish
population was 5,352 out of 10,636 total. The Jewish population before the war was 11,750.
The most prominent business leaders in the community at the outbreak of the war included:
Fishl Zylbersztein, president of the Jewish hospital and orphanage; Szol Ajzen, landlord; Szmuel
Brand, businessman; the Reglow family, owners of the steam mill; (unknown) Rabinowitz, lawyer;
(unknown) Krajcer, chemist; (unknown) Brand, Polish army officer and doctor; Putzer family, grain
trade; Pachter family, tree trade; Zys Rojtman, owner of a large store; Berel Rozenblum, shoe store;
(unknown) Szer, haberdashery shop; (unknown) Gertel, owner of a store with electrical instruments;

The Nazis entered on Sept. 15, 1939, and immediately organized a series of pogroms. Ten
days later they withdrew and the Soviet Army occupied the city, but after a Soviet-German
agreement the city was returned to Nazi hands. That this point in 1939, over 2,000 Jews left
with the withdrawing Soviet Army and fled to Russia. On December 1, 1939, all Jewish males
aged 15 to 60 were ordered to assemble on the Wigun common, a cattle-grazing area. About
1,000 gathered there. All of their monies and valuables were taken from them at this time. The
next day, 1,000 Jews from Hrubieszów and 1,100 from nearby Chelm were led on a death
March to the Bug River, where 1,500 Jews died. Some of the Death March victims are listed here.

In early 1940, around 9,000 Jews including some refugees were confined to the Hrubieszów
Ghetto. All Jews over the age of 12 were ordered to wear a white armband with a Shield of David
on it. The Nazis appointed a Judenrat of 12 members, including Szmuel Brand, chairman, and
Joel Rabinowicz, deputy chairman. The Judenrat was given the same tasks as in other Jewish
communities: to supply the slave labor, to collect contributions, and to confiscate items of property.
A soup kitchen was opened in the ghetto, as was a hospital with 30 beds. Medicine was given to
the sick. In August, 1940, 500 Jews from Czestochowa arrived in the ghetto. Four labor camps
were established in the vicinity, and each day hundreds of Jews, including young boys and girls,
went off to pave roads, dig ditches, build bridges, and work on Polish farms. On August 13, 1940,
the Nazis -- aided by Polish policemen -- shut 800 Jews into a local school building and kept them
there for three days without food. Some 600 of them were then sent the Belzec Death Camp. The
remaining 200 were sent to dig trenches on the Soviet border. Half of them perished from hunger
and disease. In November, 1941, 300 Jewish deportees from Krakow arrived in Hrubieszów.
In March of 1942, hundreds arrived in the city from Mielec. Jews were forced to give Polish peasants
their remaining possessions in return for food. In June of 1942, Jews concentrated in Belz were
driven in a 31 mile death march to Hrubieszów. A group of 1,800 Jews -- likely those deemed
fit for work -- were deported from Hrubieszow to the labor camp in Budzyn before April, 1942.
In May, 1942 there were 5,690 Jews in the city. The Judenrat was informed that these Jews would be
sent to work in the Pinsk district. Instead, on June 1-2, 1942, Nazis assisted by Polish policemen
assembled 3,049 Jews in the market square, put them aboard goods wagons and sent them to their
deaths in Sobibor. Forty Jews who resisted in the market square were shot on the spot. A few days
later, from June 7-9, the Nazis removed hundreds of remaining Jews from their houses. Despite some
resistance, 180 Jews were taken to the cemetery and murdered there. The remainder, among
them Jews from Grabowiec, Uchanie, Dubienka and Bialopole, were taken to Sobibor Death Camp.
This transport is described by eyewitness Dr. Michael Temchin, who also was on the transport but
was able to escape one of the train cars destined for Sobibor, in his book "The Witch Doctor."
Some 2,500 still remained in the city. They were working at German plants, concentrated in a small
ghetto close to the cemetery. On October 28, 1942, this ghetto too was closed, and most of its
inmates sent to Sobibor, around 2,000 Jews. Some 400 Jews who resisted at the time of deportation
were annihilated in the cemetery area. Only 600 young Jews remained. They were forced to clean
the ghetto and destroy the cemetery. This last group of Jews lived on Jatkowa Street. In September
of 1943, this group was sent to the labor camp at Budzyn near Krasnik. Others who were still alive may
have been sent to labor camps at Sokal and Dolhobyczow. A handful managed to escape to the woods,
but others perished due to the subhuman conditions. Hrubieszów was liberated in July 1944 by
the Red Army. The Nazis destroyed both Jewish synagogues, the cemetery, and private prayer
houses in Hrubieszów. In all, between 9,000 and 10,000 Hrubieszów Jews were murdered.

The Nazis in charge of the deportations and murders in Hrubieszow were Gestapo Commandant
Weidermann, Commander of the Gendarmerie Henig, Police Officer Dymant (or Demant), and other
officers: Richard Thomalla, Gerchow (Hans Girtzig?), (Gustav?) Wagner, Paul Grott, Herman Muller,
Ebner, and Waldner. Thomalla was executed by the Soviets in 1945.

Please review the site content below. Zachor - We Remember.

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[History] [Surnames] [Holocaust]
[Wikipedia - Hrubieszów] [Notable Residents]
[Old Cemetery] [New Cemetery]
[1939 Death March] [Death March Victims (Martyrs)]
[Emigrants to America] [Sephardim in Hrubieszow]
[Family Research in Southeast Poland]
[Hrubieszów Memorial Foundation in Israel]
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Learn more at the Sobibor Remembrance Project


Learn more at the Belzec Remembrance Project


A map of Hrubieszow. Another map, from 1938, located HERE.


Hrubieszow cemetery, circa 1910-1920.

Pre-war Hrubieszow.



Hrubieszow market, 1925.




Members of the Hrubieszow Bet Lechem Society. Front row, left to right: David Cukierman, Mote Cymet, Ber Buchtreger,
Ber Migdal, Leibl Zederboim, Peretz Shtorm (Szturm?); Back row, left to right: Fiszl Adelshtein,
Moshe Beker, Israel Tzigel, Yeshachar Laks, Noa Fajfer, Gerszon Ajzner (Eisner), and Itche Badneshtain.


A photo at a Yiddish school in Hrubieszow, 1938. In this photo are also Jacob
and his sister Hinda. Photo courtesy of the Biskubicz family.





Jewish girls attending school in Hrubieszow, 1925. The girls were born circa 1913.


Hrubieszow, 1920s. Yerachmiel Biterman, standing far right; David Helfman, kneeling. Others unknown.


Unidentified Jews from Hrubieszow. Contact us if you can identify anyone.


Unidentified Jews from Hrubieszow. Contact us if you can identify anyone.


Unidentified Jews from Hrubieszow. Contact us if you can identify anyone.


Unidentified Jews from Hrubieszow. Contact us if you can identify anyone.




Contact us if you can identify anyone. Enhanced version here.


Unidentified Jews from Hrubieszow. Contact us if you can identify anyone.


Unidentified Jewish residents of Hrubieszow. Contact us if you can identify anyone.


Pre-war: Judka Biterman and his wife Bluma and their son and daughter with a female friend and her son.






Perla Hecht Cymet, right side. Others unidentified. 1939 in Hrubieszow.




A photo of Sobibor uprising survivor Jacob Biskubicz from Hrubieszow.
Photo courtesy of the Biskubicz family.



A photo of the Biskubicz family, rescued from the flames of Sobibor. Photo taken on Passover 1939. Left to right:
Perle, Lejb, Jacob, Hinda, and grandmother (mother of mother) Chana-Sara. Courtesy of the Biskubicz family.



Cymet family members, Hrubieszow.


Joizep Cymet and his wife Rywka Biterman Cymet. Both were Shoah victims.

Zionist activists in Hrubieszow, 1929.

Zionist activists in Hrubieszow, 1934.


Hrubesher Society in NYC in the 1930s. Includes Leib Brustman, bottom row, 3rd
from left, and Moishe Krakower, middle row, 7th from left. Photo courtesy of Rich Brustman.




First Hrubishower Society's 35th Anniversary Banquet, 2nd Ave., NYC - Jan. 13, 1940.





People from Horodlo, a village near Hrubieszow.



A family from Horodlo, a village near Hrubieszow.





[Click here for an enhanced version]



Some Hrubieszów residents were fortunate enough to emigrate before the war.




The Hrubieszow Death March to Sokal, Ukraine took place in 1939. We have a memorial page for the victims.


Forced labor in Hrubieszów during the war period.


Jews in the sewing shop of the Hrubieszów Ghetto. Front right: Nathan Scher. Behind him: Joe Scher (Szer).



Survivors from Hrubieszów exhumed bodies from a mass grave in order to be taken for proper burial. 1945.


Shlomo Brand of Hrubieszow led a group of Nazi resisters in Vilna.







Four Jewish men exhuming bodies in Hrubieszów after the war.



Memorial to victims at the restored Hrubieszow Cemetery.


Restored Hrubieszow Jewish Cemetery.

Memorial to 49 murdered Jews in Malkow near Hrubieszow, unveiled by the Lasting Memory Foundation in November 2013.
Thank you to Zbigniew Nizinski. Learn more.



A memorial at the Budzyn Labor Camp where hundreds of Hrubieszow Jews were sent.
Jews who survived slave labor at Budzyn were sent to Majdanek, Mielec, Plaszow, or another camp to be murdered.


Pinkas (Yizkor book) committee list, Hrubieszow.

LINKS

Join the Hrubieszow group on Facebook!

Books about Hrubieszów:

Forbidden Strawberries by Cipora Hurwitz
I Shall Live by Henry Orenstein
Joszko Z Hrubieszowa by Krzysztof Pilarczyk
Little Dove in a Silent Garden: Fredzia Sztuden's Story by Shmuel Rothbard
Our Roots: Shorashim Shelanu by Z. Einat
Pinkas Hrubieszów (Memorial Book of Hrubieszow) by B. Kaplinsky
(readable online)
Until Our Last Breath: Lejzor Bart's Story by Michael Bart
Until We Meet Again by Michael Korenblit
The Young Soapmaker (Testimony) by Leonard and Gertie Lerer

City of Hrubieszów:

Budzyn Labor Camp Description
(includes description from Hrubieszow's Abraham Dichter)
Description of Hrubieszow During War - Mrs. Dichterman/Dychterman
(Note: May be related to Abraham Dichter listed above)
Frumke and Chajke: Jewish Resistance in Hrubieszow
Hrubieszow eGroup
Hrubieszow Genealogy Group (outdated)
Hrubieszow Aerial View from 1943
Hrubieszow Aerial View from 2010
Sephardim from Hrubieszow
Abraham Jakub Stern
Postcard from the Judenrat of Hrubieszow

Concentration and Labor Camps

Ghetto Listing: Poland
Belzec Concentration Camp
Budzyn Labor Camp
Majdanek Concentration Camp
Majdanek Sub-Camp: Trawniki
Plaszow Concentration Camp (Krakow)
Return to Majdanek: Cipora Hurwitz
Sobibor Concentration Camp
Stutthof Concentration Camp

Lists from Hrubieszów:

First Hrubieshower Sick Benevolent Society
Hrubieszow Death March Victims - "Sefer Ha'Zvaot"
Hrubieszow Ellis Island Records
Hrubieszow Burials in NYC
Surnames in NYC Hrubieszow Burials
Pinkas Committee from 1962 (page 431)

Families of Hrubieszów:

Arbis family
Biterman family
Blatt family
Blender family
Edelman family
Feil family
Finger family
Folk family
Goldbaum family
Gruber family
Heryng family
Hus family
Kleiner family
Lerer family
Migdal family
Orenstein family
Penik family
Rosenfeld family
Schuchman family
Tenenbaum family
Zajdman family

Survivors of Hrubieszów:
Note: Additional survivors listed in Pinkas HaNitzolim II

Yeheskel Ader
Shaul Aizen
Chaim Ajzen (Henry Steel)
Heniek Alt
Ethel Apel (Ajzenkranz)
Lejzor Bart
Lejb Berenstein
Moses Bergerson
Jakub Biskubicz
Judah Biterman
Alexander Blady
Abraham Blander (video testimony)
Rachel Blass
Matale Blender (testimony)
Lea Boden (went to Kalmar, Sweden)
Szloma Brand
Usher Cukierman (went to Israel)
Jakub Czuch
Tuli Czuchowicz
Wolf Danziger
Abraham Dichter
Chaskiel Drucker
Enrique Dychter
Jojne Dyksztejn
Brania Eber (liberated from Bergen-Belsen)
Abram Eisen
Joseph Epstein
Guta Fajfer (liberated from Bergen-Belsen)
Michael Finger (Drori)
Jacob Finkelstein
Pesia Folk
Chaja Gal (liberated from Bergen-Belsen)
Estera Gas (liberated from Bergen-Belsen)
Zelman Gelertner
Raymond Geller
Eliahu Gertel
David Gewirtz
Natan Giewerc
Zvi Goldberg
Isaac Goldman
Mojsze Guwerner
Cipora Hurwitz, aka Fela Rozensztajn (video testimony)
Nechama Goldberg Kaspi
Winda Kutna (liberated from Bergen-Belsen)
Nathan Hadass
Sura Hartin (went to Sweden)
Josef Hendel
Mordechai Horowitz
Tsiporah Horvits
Helen Firszt Jakubowski (video testimony)
Martin (Schyja) Kaner
Serka Katz
Dora Klak (liberated from Bergen-Belsen)
Hersz Klahr
Meyer Kornblit (photo)
Manya Nagelsztajn Korenblit
Abram Lehrer
Leonard (Lejb) Lehrer
Meyer Megdal
Naphtali Meil
Joseph Mermelstein
Sara Mostysser
Chaim (Harry) Nagelsztajn
Pinchas Nusel
Sam. O
Shalom Omri (Schwartz)
Fred Orenstein (testimony)
Henry Orenstein (testimony)
Gunia P.
Sabina Peterseil
Eliezer Poliushko
Herschel Pucer (went to Germany)
Kopel Rabinowitz (Esteron)
Bencion Ratniewski
Avram Retig
Jacob Rosenblatt
Fredzia Studen Rothbard
Fela Rozenstejn
Mendel Saler
Yankel Saler
Josef Scher
Nathan Scher
Regina Sherer Franks
Molly Weisbrot Schneiderman
Moshe Schneiderman
Abraham Silberstein
Hy Silberstein
Eliahu Silverblech
Chaim Strom
Szmul Szlechter (liberated from Landsberg Camp)
Lejzor Sztokhamer (went to Israel)
Jozefa Karpik Szypulka (non-Jew)
Josef Szwarcz (Schwartz)
Szloma Szwarcz (Schwartz)
Ruth Hudes Tatarko (video testimony)
Yankel Tschechovitz (Tschechowitz)
Jacobo Wajs
Szlema Weinet
Israel Weiss
Basha Weisbrot
Jacob Weisbrot
Jankiel Weisbrot
Wanda Wolosky
Hanna Zak
Chaim Zelcer (went to Israel)
Chaim Zemel
Chaim Zilberstein
Avraham Zimmerman
Meir Ziss
Mejer Zojm (went to Lithuania)
Helen Zuberman

Survivors from Uchanie:

Yosef Abend
Maier Brand
Enrique Hersh Dychter
Jacob Finklestein
Gustav Gutterman
Jack Kucher (Jacob Kuczer)
Chaim Ella Leder
Anna Mangot
Baruch Mehl
Benjamin Mehl
Leib Merenstein
Perla Najman
Mosze Opatowski
Lev Nisen
Baruch Shafran
Rubin Shafran (testimony)
Sarah Shafran Gutterman

Survivors of Horodlo:

Yisrael Barg
Abish Berger
Bentzion Bergman
Susana Bergman
Moshe Biderman
Yitzchok Binstok
Elia Borensztejn
Ira Borensztejn
Klara Borensztejn
Aharon Fluk
Shmuel Frind
Nathan Hecht
Szaul Kupfersztok
Abram Kalisz
Freda Perelmutter Schipper
Tzvi Platt
Abram Rojter
Melach Szechter
Fania Sztejn
Michel Zajdel
Josef Zavidowicz
Nechama Zinger
Moshe Zuberman

Rabbis of Hrubieszow:

Chaim (Chajke) ber Shmuel Halevi Horowitz, until 1665
Meshulem Feibush ber Menachem Ginzburg, 1667
Yakov Ben Tzvi Hirsz
Avraham Avli Zak
Yitzhak Charif, 1695
Shmuel Margules
Aryeh Leibush ben Meir Kantschiner
Yoel ben Dawid Katzenellenbogien
Ze'ev Wolf
Moshe Yitzhak
Chaim Hochgelernter
Yosef ben Mordechai Katzenellenbogien, 1818
(unknown) Hillel, 1824
Josef Eliezer Gelernter, until 1864
Moshe Klug, 1878
Efraim Zalman Rokach (Rokeach)
Izrael Isser Jawic, 1896
Moshe Lejb Berman, rabbi of Horodlo
Josef Wertheim, 1924-1935
Yochanan Twerski, 1936-1939

Righteous Gentiles:

Rozalia Baran was murdered for giving her identification papers to a Jewish woman.
Alfred Haponski saved Chaja Papir by giving her false identification papers.
Nikolay and Mikhail Vavrisevich rescued six Jews from Horodlo, Poland.

Notable Residents:

Notable Residents
Sofia Apteiker (Sarah Freynd)
Jacques Calmanson
Zvi Faier
Avraham Sztern (Stern)

Notable Descendants:

Yosef Almogi, Israeli Knesset member
Daniel Goldman, Argentinian Rabbi
David Kimche, former director of Israeli Mossad
David Mamet, American playwright
Zalman Shazar, past president of Israel

Genealogy:

Eichmann Trial Transcripts Document Hrubieszów Events
Frumka Plotnik and Hava Follman Eyewitness Testimony: Hrubieszow
Hrubieszow Records in Israel
Jewish Records Indexing Poland - Hrubieszów
Jewish Vital Records in the Polish State Archives

Remember Your Family:

The DNA Shoah Project: Connecting Descendants
Central Judaica Database - Museum of History of Polish Jews
Grandchildren of Holocaust Survivors on Facebook
Guide to the YIVO Archives
Holocaust News/Events from Generations of the Shoah Int'l
Holocaust Survivors and Victims Database
JewishGen Family Finder
JewishGen Holocaust Database
JRI-Poland: Search for Your Family
Museum of History of Polish Jews Introduction
Yad Vashem: Search for Your Family
Yad Vashem: Submit Names of Your Family Members
Yad Vashem Requests Photos of Shoah Survivors and Families


CONTACTS

ISRAEL: Aaron Estaron estar1@zahav.net.il
The Israeli Organization of Hrubieszów

U.S.: Aaron, genealogykid20@aol.com


HOT LINKS

Chelm.freeyellow.com Index



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