The Lublin district of Poland was the center of Nazi anti-Jewish policy. It's Jews are therefore central to the facts of the Holocaust.|
Starting in 1939, an extensive labor camp network was set up throughout the district for the purpose of torturing the Jewish population as well as production to prop up the German economy. Of course, the German policy was to transform the Lublin district into a large German settlement area in Poland. Within ten years, they hoped 3 million Germans would settle in the territory, administrated exclusively by the Nazi S.S. The forced labor in the district quickly became so sadistic and unbearable that most of the labor camps became de facto death camps.
There were 491 labor camps established in General Government, of which 154 were situated in Lublin district. By December, 1942, still 20,000 Jews from the Lublin district were living in the district. In addition to Jews from eastern Poland, large groups of Jews from outside of Poland were transported into the Lublin district, and to many of these labor camps, beginning in 1940.
Below is an attempt to document which labor camps existed in the district. The Belzec sub-camps are in red text and the Sobibor sub-camps are in blue text. There were also several Majdanek sub-camps, such as Budzyn. Three death camps -- Belzec, Majdanek, and Sobibor -- were located in the Lublin district. The larger and better known labor camps in the district include Budzyn, Dorohucza, Krychow, Poniatowa, and Trawniki. In November, 1943, all Jews remaining in the district with the exception of those at Budzyn and Skret (Krasnik) were murdered in the Aktion Erntefest.
There was significant Jewish partisan activity around Hrubieszow, Janow Lubelski, Parczew, Pulawy, and Wlodawa in the Lublin district. Several of the below-listed labor camps -- Adampol, Janiszow, Janow Lubelski, Krasnik, and Lipowa 7 -- had either large-scale escape attempts or partisan efforts to rescue Jewish prisoners from them.
Despite the partisan activity and persistent Jewish resistance by Lublin's Jews, very few of the Jews in any of these labor camps survived the Holocaust. The conditions in the forced labor camps were too sadistic for humans to endure. Due to the lack of witnesses, we know very little about many -- indeed, most -- of these camps. We attempt to document some of what is known below.
Most of the labor camps had male Jewish slave labor, however several of the camps had female prisoners. Those with female prisoners include, among others: Adampol, Belzyce, Budzyn, Deblin, Krychow, Labunie, Lublin aiport, Milejow, Poniatowa, Pulawy, Rejowiec, Sawin, Siedliszcze, Staszow near Uchanie, Staw near Chelm (200 men and 80 women), Ujazdow, Wlodawa, and Zamosc. Sobibor, Belzec, and Krychow also housed gypsies (Roma).
The sources for most of the below content include: (1) David Silberklang's book "Gates of Tears" and (2) Project H.E.A.R.T.