Remembering the Jewish Partisans in Poland's Lublin District

ALSO ON THIS SITE: Memorials to victims in:
[Lublin District, Poland] * [Chelm - Hrubieszow Death March]
[Dubno, Ukraine] * [Belzec Death Camp]
[Sobibor Death Camp] * [Majdanek Concentration Camp]
[Jewish Revolts and Uprisings in the Lublin District]

INTRODUCTION

Until 1939, more than 80,000 Jews lived in the five southern counties of the Lublin district: Janow Lubelski, Bilgoraj, Krasnystaw, Zamosc and Hrubieszow. These areas were ideal for partisan activities because the main railroads the Germans were using were north or south of the area and the area was hilly with several deep forests. During the initial deportations of Jews from the Lublin district to Belzec, largely between April and September of 1942, Jews in small towns of southern Lublin showed persistent resistance -- according to the scholar Shmuel Krakowski, "perhaps greater resistance than in most other areas of Poland." The total number of those who fled from the five counties in southern Lublin reached 20,000 -- greater than in any other part of occupied Poland. Sadly, the majority of the fugitives were caught and killed in the first German hunts for escaped Jews.

From what I can gather, the most successful Jewish partisan groups in the Lublin district were as follows: Chil Grynszpan's group in the Parczew forests; Frank Blaichman's group of youthful disobedients who refused to be confined to the ghetto of Kamionka near Lubartow; Shmuel Gruber's group of escaped prisoners of war from Lublin; the Knopfmacher group which escaped from the Wlodawa Ghetto and Adampol Labor Camp; and the Adolf Bron group in the western part of the Lublin district. Sobibor camp escapees eventually joined each of these groups after the Sobibor Uprising in October of 1943. The groups listed here consisted of solely Jewish members, with only a few exceptions for pro-Jewish Russian fighters, but had mostly helpful cooperation from the Armia Ludowa.

Amcha ("your people") was the "code" that the Maccabees had used when they fought the Syrians in the 2nd Century BCE. Jewish partisans in the forests of Lublin used this same password to identify other Jews in the area. In fighting as partisans, their number one goal was to save Jewish lives. Women with small children and the elderly found refuge because of the men and women listed below. Several of the "family camps" grew to hundreds of people, most especially the camp called Tabor operated by Grynszpan's 2nd Holod Battalion and the camp called Ohozhe operated by the Lichtenberg group.

As is evidenced from almost every testimony I have read to compile the research herein, both the Narodowe Sily Zbrojne (NSZ) -- which had around 75,000 Polish fighters -- and the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa) -- which had around 270,000 fighters -- consisted of many vicious anti-Semites. The groups were very active in the Lublin district. Therefore not only did the partisan groups have to withstand the Nazis and anti-Jewish Polish fighters from these two armed groups, but also the combination of Polish military men and Polish farmers intent on murdering Jews.

Of course, there were some pro-Jewish Polish military men and an occasional pro-Jewish farmer as well. In spite of these obstacles, two cases of Jewish partisans rescuing Poles is documented in Marek Jan Chodakiewicz's book "Zydzi i Polacy 1918-1955" (Jews and Poles 1918-1955). In February of 1944, Abraham Bron saved his friends, Stanislaw Saganowski ("Dab") and his son Jerzy Saganowski ("Brzoza") of Aleksandrowka from the NKVD and the UB. They were active members of the NSZ, and thus had to go into hiding after the arrival of the Red Army. Bron arranged for immunity for the Saganowskis from the local secret police and protected them afterward. Bron helped them move to his house in Krasnik. Subsequently, Saganowski, Sr. went into a black market business with his Jewish friend. Saganowski, Jr. enrolled at a high school in Krasnik. Both maintained personal contacts with their NSZ colleagues but remained passive in the anti-Communist struggle. In a separate incident in the spring of 1945, a Jewish general, Aleksander Mieczyslaw Skotnicki saved Pawel Golombek from the Communist secret service (UB). Golombek was a Polish policeman who was secretly in the Underground. Skotnicki was later killed in battle.

Collectively and individually, Jews throughout the Lublin district resisted Nazi oppression. The Jewish partisans listed below are an inspiration. They valiantly fought and died for freedom against the Nazi murderers. In many cases, very little information remains about the existence of particular partisan groups due to the complete annihiliation of the units by the Nazi murderers. The conditions the partisans had to overcome are monumental by any standard. There was not just the lack of food, the constant starvation, and the need to find food by any means possible. Another obstacle was dealing with the fact that most of their family members had previously been murdered and overcoming the feeling that they were now truly alone in the world. There was also the problem of how to get weapons, how to stay warm in the winters, and how to avoid detection by Polish and German soldiers. Complicating this last matter was the fact that a majority of Poles and Ukrainians were eager to report Jews to the Nazi murderers. We fondly remember the Jewish partisans of the Lublin distrct as heroes, today and forever.

PARTISAN GROUPS

Two of the more successful Jewish partisan group leaders, Shmuel "Mietec" Gruber and Yechiel "Chil" Grynszpan, had both previously been corporals in the Polish Army. Jews had been required to serve their country -- even as the borders changed -- for centuries. This previous military training was crucial to their success as unit leaders.

Below is information on the specific groups that formed between 1942 and 1944 in the district, each formed to fight off the Nazi murderers:



Groups form Northwest of Lublin: In Markuszow and Kamionka in 1942, groups of young Jews who escaped from ghettos or otherwise avoided capture managed to acquire weapons and food. When the Jewish community of Markuszow was rounded up, some 700 Jews fled. The four separate Jewish partisan groups -- one led by Mordechai Kirshenboim, a second led by brothers Yerucham and Yaakov Gotheilf, a third called the Cossacks, and a fourth group from Kamionka led by Frank Blaichman -- set up camps in the Wola forests. In early December of 1942, a group of S.S. men and Ukrainian auxiliaries arrived near Markuszow to search the forests for hidden Jews. On December 2, the first day of the search, about 400 Jews were killed. Another 600 perished before the sweep ended on January 20, 1943.

Thus, the first three groups of partisans mentioned above were exterminated. The only survivors of "the Cossacks" group, per Samuel Gruber's testimony, were Jusek Piasaki and Jerzy Marcinek. These two later merged with Gruber's group. There were two specific incidents still in memory today from the survivors. These incidents occurred after years on the run and in hiding. Near Markuszow was a village called Pryszczowa Gora, built on a peaty area with 350 families in the village. The residents, all peasants, were poor. Markuszow Jews built caves and camouflaged themselves at this locale. The shochet went out one day and was spotted by the military police after a local villager complained. The Germans were led to the entrance of the cavesite. The cave entrances were stuffed with straw and set on fire. All of the Jews were dead, except one little girl. She was taken in by the villagers and passed from house to house. The second incident concerned a separate group of Markuszow fighters, the Emilia Plater group led by Shmuel Yaeger. On Feb. 4, 1944, there were three unknown peasants at a barn owned by a farmer the partisans knew in Pryszczowa Gora. The threesome had reported the Jews to the Germans, and by the time the partisans realized this they were ambushed. The two survivors of this incident were Janek (also called Yosel), unknown surname, and Sziye Goldberg. They were both severely wounded.

Frank Blaichman's group was more successful because they were better armed. The group began with around 75 fighters, but in fall of 1942 50 of their fighters were killed in battle, leaving just 25 remaining. Blaichman's group was very successful in acquiring weapons, which several of the other Jewish partisan groups had great difficulty achieving. At just age 16 when the war started, Frank Blaichman became an unlikely leader and hero. He had no military background or training, but assumed the role of leader of the group for the purpose of avenging the blood of his murdered family members. The Blaichman group merged with a group led by Shmuel "Mietek" Gruber in the summer of 1943. The combined group total was around 90 fighters.

All Jewish members of the Polish Army were sent to the Lipowa 7 Labor Camp in Lublin. Samuel Gruber and other Lipowa 7 inmates were forced to build the Majdanek Concentration Camp as part of their slave labor detail. Gruber had been injured in a battle in the campaign against the Nazis, so he was eventually taken out of slave labor. He remained at the Lipowa camp, but was assigned to work in an office of a hospital that distributed uniforms, rifles, and pistols to German soldiers coming from the front. He was able to steal weapons, which he funneled to the anti-German Polish underground. In October of 1942, Gruber and another prisoner named Kaganowicz (first name either Berko or Josef) led a group of around 25 men into the Kozlow woods north of Lublin. After Gruber's group, at several other groups of prisoners from Lipowa 7 also escaped into the woods. They were aided by a People's Guard Polish detachment.



Gruber's group had difficulty finding weapons after escaping from Lipowa 7. His group had around 20 persons and was largely unarmed, but had local connections with friendly farmers -- especially in a particular hamlet north of Lubartow called Przypisowka, where the villagers were involved in the Polish underground. The Gruber group placed vulnerable, sick, or elderly Jews with farmers they could trust to avoid attracting attention.

The Blaichman and Gruber groups merged in summer, 1943, and together they hunted down Nazis and any Poles who collaborated with them. They blew up the town halls in Garbow and Markuszow because the Nazis were going to use lists of Jews in those locales for slave labor. They picked off German patrols and stole German weapons. They initially fought in the area west of the Wieprz River in the Janowski (Yanov) forest west of Lublin. The combined forces acquired rifles, pistols, and machine guns as well as food and clothing obtained from various sources, including Nazis, Polish villagers, and an occasional political ally. This combined group, "The Lubartow Group", reached Chil Grynszpan's groups in January of 1944 and merged with them. The combined groups had around 400 fighters and worked closely with the Armia Ludowa.

Groups form Northeast of Lublin: Yechiel Grynszpan was part of a horse-trading family and thus became familiar with the wagon routes and swamps in the forests near where he grew up prior to the war. His family mostly traded with non-Jews, and therefore he also knew which Polish farmers could be trusted. In late 1942, Grynszpan's group formed. They had around 50 fighters but only two rifles and one pistol. In early 1943 they came across the remains of weapons hidden after the battles of September 1939. The group managed to acquire seven more rifles, ammunition, and a small number of grenades. Grynszpan worked to motivate the partisans, saying "You are born once -- you only die once!" He became a larger than life figure.

Grynszpan's group set up a camp in the woods called Tabor where the elderly, children, and those too weak to fight could still survive under the protection of the unit and surrounded by dense forests. An estimated 1,000 Jews were at the camp. Few of them actually ended up surviving the war. The camp residents were mostly from local villages such as Kodeniec, Pachole, Zahajki, and Krzywowierzby. The three village elders who oversaw the Tabor camp were Abram from Zaliscze (Abram Cholomski), Yankel from Holowno, and Nuchem from Krasnowka. Jews set up a makeshift synagogue in the forests. They carried out various services for the partisans, such tailoring, shoemaking, and cooking.

The partisans in the Grynszpan group had some variety. Among them was a group of escaped prisoners of war from Lipowa 7 camp, Fioder's brigade of mostly Russian fighters (including some Jews), and later the Gruber-Blaichman-Yaeger Jewish partisans from the Pulawy area. Grynszpan himself eventually formed a tight bond with the Armia Ludowa, which recognized the group as most organized Jewish resistance in all of eastern Poland.

Some of the activities of the Grynszpan group included the liberation of Jews from forced labor at Jablonia and Adampol, preventing German transportation abilities, and attacking German brigades. Velvele Litwack, one of the young fighters, describes specific activities of the group below.



Tragically, in the fall of 1943, the Nazis invaded the campsite and 75 of the around 200 of the Jews living in it were murdered. In the fall of 1943, more than a dozen of the Sobibor uprising escapees found Grynszpan's group -- each sick, starved, and frozen. They included: Yehuda "Atleta" Lerner, Abraham Margules, Hella Fellenbaum, Ajzik Rotenberg, Itzhak Lichtman, a Russian Jew with a pistol (Taborinski), Ada Fischer, Kitty Gokkes, and Ursula Stern. Prior to finding the Grynszpan group, Sobibor survivors Lerner, Taborinski, and Moshe Goldfarb were with a group of six other Sobibor survivors who were lured into a group of around 20 Polish fighters led by two brothers called Piatek. Without warning, these Polish fighters attacked the Jewish Sobibor survivors near Hola, and six were murdered, including one woman. Three lived to tell the story. They left this group and continued to search for allies, and fortunately met the Grynszpan partisans.

The Lubartow group of Gruber and Blaichman eventually joined Chil's battalion. The combined units were tough, experienced, and disciplined by the fall of 1943. There were 150 people in the combined unit, including 20 armed women who fought alongside the men. They were fierce opponents to the Nazis and their collaborators and killed any Nazis they encountered. The group derailed bridges, blew up at least four army troop trains, hijacked German supply trucks on highways, cut phone poles between Lublin and Wlodawa, and attacked police headquarters and government posts in Kaplonosy and Parczew

Grynszpan group partisan Zev Velvele Litwack recalls:
"On December 16, 1942 Chil led us to the village Ostrowa, where we started a heavy fight with the Hitlerists and after some hours we succeeded in conquering the position. German officers fell in our hands and 12 Polish policemen were shot. We captured many arms, uniforms, and other things. We burned down their housings and the town hall. The mayor, who had cooperated with the Germans, was shot. This was the first act of revenge for the Jewish bloodshed." But there was a price to pay: shortly after the victory, the Germans surrounded the partisans. The partisans were bombed for three days with planes and tanks. According to Litwack, "When they were about 40 meters from our range of sight came the order: 'Fire!' And we opened fire from all sides, so that the Germans did not know from where it came and they were standing in an open cornfield on their way towards us. In this battle we lost three partisans, two Russians and one Jew, Simcha Lewinson from Sosnowica. Tens of Germans were killed. After fighting for about five hours the Germans retreated."

1942 was a year with great snowfalls, storms and frosts. Winter was at its peak. The situation for the partisans was not good; most were naked, barefoot, and hungry. They attacked villages taking weapons and cattle by force, but lost Jewish fighters in each attack. Continues Litwack: "On January 11, we were surrounded in the forest of Parzew by a big German unit. But our Russian commander (Fiodor Kovalev) tricked them and we pushed back their attack. On February 26, 1943 at 11am, a group of 10 people with the commander Zemsta (Alexander Skotnicki, a Jew from the Armia Ludowa) were surrounded by 400 Germans. My comrades were sleeping in the hut of the forest guard and only I, wearing a German uniform, kept guard. The Germans approached, shouting: 'Comrade (friend)!' I threw myself down on the ground and started shooting at them. The Germans answered with heavy fire from machine guns. I detained them until the group left the hut and I succeeded in withdrawing to the other side. Our fighters, among them Zipora Koren (a teenager of around 15) opened fire and succeeded in passing and leaving the German encirclement.

In March 1943, the first planes with arms from the Soviet Union arrived. At the same time we separated from Russian partisans and formed a Jewish division under the leadership of Chil. We bombed trains near the village of Sarki, not far from Sobibor; we burned down a glass-works factory in Dubeczno. In Wyryki, we burnt the guardhouse, in Kaplonosy we attacked the German army and killed 26 Germans, and in Sosnowica we attacked a garrison and killed 120 Germans. Additionally, our forces destroyed the Bridge near to Sawin, where the railways passed on which the trains with German soldiers to the front were transported. One night we invaded in Parczew, burned the town hall and shot the guard. A week did not pass without our having removed from the rails a train with soldiers.

At the same time we stopped sleeping in the forest but slept instead in the villages that we had gained control of and where we had sympathetic non-Jews. The government of all councils of the whole district of Wlodowa went over to our side. Then Chil Grynszpan organized the division under the command of the Armia Ludowa, left-wing Poles. Chil was promoted high commander.

In April, 1943 we were heavily attacked in the forest of Kaplonosy. In this battle we lost 70 Jewish fighters. Women and children rescued from the ghetto Wlodowa were also killed. It became known to us that in Adampol there were Jews from Wlodowa and Sosnowica. Nisan Cyn agreed to join me, but he was the only one. In the evening we both went to a farmer in Kaplonosy whom we knew very well. We promised him a good pig if he would bring us to the camp. He led us there and remained half a kilometer away of the camp and we continued. Nisan stood at the gate and I in German-uniform entered the camp. I took two Jews with me and left.

The winter months were slowly creeping until the summer of 1943 arrived. We were informed that Jews were still living in the ghetto. I learned that from my whole family which was killed in Sobibor, only father survived. I sent a farmer from the village Krasnowka to bring my father to the forest. The farmer returned without my father but with a letter from him in which it was written: 'My son, I don't have anything to live for and it is not worthwhile for me to come to the forest. G-d shall help you and guard you from all dangers. Revenge all, for the innocent Jewish blood which was shed'. On May 2, 1943 at night, Wlodowa was encircled by S.S.-men and Ukrainians driving out Jews from their hiding places. Tens of men, women, and children were shot in the street. My father too was shot on Wyryki street. This was the last action to dispose of Jews in the Wlodowa ghetto, which was one of the last remaining ghettos in the entire region.

One night I invaded in the first barrack of the camp Adampol. The Jews were already sleeping and I woke them taking along with me more than 30 people, ordering them to pass the fence while I jumped after them. All this was accomplished so silently that nobody noticed what happened. The farmer led us to the forest of Kaplonosy, where Chil Grynszpan was waiting with his whole group. This successful experiment increased our courage and we started enlarging our visits taking out Jews from Wlodowa, Sosnowica, Kaplonosy, Wyryki, and other places. Another day we made an assembly and decided to take all the Jews from Adampol, as we had learned that the last action was going to take place. It was determined that five men with arms should enter the camp hiding the arms and organizing the Jews to be prepared to leave the camp for the forest. Yurek Cholomsky and four others were sent.

But the Nazi head of the camp, Selinger, learned about the presence of the partisans in the camp and about their intention to lead the Jews out of the camp. He phoned the Gestapo in Wlodowa and on the same day some hundreds of them enclosed the camp and drove out all the Jews to the fields and fired at them. The five partisans went the first and when they were in the fields they shouted loudly all the Jews started escaping and dispersing in all directions. The Germans opened fire killing all the Jews, except Yurek, a man from Wlodawa, and Yeshayahu from Wyryki. On this day, 600 Jews were massacred from Wlodowa and the surroundings. All were buried in a common grave next to Adampol.

In June 1943 we fought against the Germans behind the village Zahajki. Our commander was then Yechiel Grynspan, who conducted the battle with exceptional fighting spirit and strategic talent. In the same battle we lost two fighters. One was Yeshayahu Lichtenstein, the son of the Rabbi of Wlodowa. In every place we went, we were ambushed by Germans and Poles filled with hate for the Jews. We fought against them day after day. We were never able to relax because of the terrible situation we had to confront. For us, there was not much hope that we would survive this devastation. But within each of us existed a great spirit to rise up to fight." -- Velvele Litwack
One daring, but ultimately unsuccessful, action devised by the Grynszpan unit was an attempt to liberate 770 Jewish prisoners from the Krasnik Labor Camp (Skret). Liaison was established with the Jews inside the camp, who were supplied with 30 revolvers and a number of hand grenades. A plan for concerted action was carefully elaborated; the revolt inside the camp was to flare up simultaneously with the partisan attack from the outside. An informer revealed the plans to the Nazis. Several days before the scheduled revolt was to take place, the Nazis seized the armed rebels inside the camp, killed the bulk of them, and transferred others to the nearby Budzyn.

By July of 1944, Chil's partisan forces -- which had formed an alliance with the Armia Ludowa -- was surrounded by German soldiers. On July 22, the Red Eighth Army passed them during the night, and the partisans from the Mietek and Grynszpan groups were behind the front line of liberated Poland. Of the roughly 4,000 Jews who had fled to the forests of Parczew, Markuszow, and Wlodawa between 1940 and 1944, only around 200 were still alive. Chil's group was one of the most successful partisan detachments in all of Europe.



Wlodawa is located east of the Bug River, near Sobibor. In October of 1942, a separate group of around a dozen partisans formed outside of Adampol, Poland. Freedom was a new concept for this group, as most had been imprisoned in the Wlodawa or Adampol ghettos and had found a way to escape. This group was the beginnings of the Moshe Lichtenberg group.

By March, 1943 the group had around 30 fighters including around 27 males and three females. The Polish farmer Papinski was a messenger between the Lichtenberg group and local populations. In May, 1943 the Wlodawa Ghetto was liquidated. Between the partisan groups in the area, there were at least four rescue missions into the Wlodawa Ghetto to smuggle Jews out of it, and over 100 Jews were taken out of the ghetto or the nearby Adampol Labor Camp. The Lichtenberg partisan group gained new members until it reached 80 fighters. The very young, very old or those without any weapons were relocated to a place called Ochozhe, an island inside the forest surrounded by very deep swamps. This was a family camp similar to the Tabor camp of the Grynszpan group, protected by the partisan fighters.

Lichtenberg's group, which eventually came to number 100 to 120 fighters (including 10 female fighters), briefly joined the Chil Grynszpan group, but Lichtenberg's leadership style clashed with that of Grynszpan. In July, 1943, a man named Kolka Meluch arrived in Wlodawa with a small brigade of fighters and explained that he was from the Bielorussian partisan movement headquarters. Lichtenberg believed him and followed him toward the headquarters with all 100+ fighters from the group. They crossed the Bug River to continue their struggle for freedom in the Soviet partisan movement. While there, unit leaders Moshe Lichtenberg, Motel Rosenberg and Chaim Fiszman were shot by Kolka in a dispute over machine guns. It was a devastating defeat for the partisans. Melech was not a partisan commander as he had stated, but simply a bandit in the forests looking for people to take advantage of.

After losing these key men, Leon Nemzer, who had served in the Polish Army, took over as the group's leader. The ammunition and food supplies of the Lichtenberg group were consistently very sparse. The local Poles in the area around Wlodawa were very hostile to the Jewish partisans. A few months after Nemzer became leader, the group of Jewish partisans was absorbed into the Molotov Partisan Brigade, which had four Otriads. Each of the Otriads had around 400 fighters. In April of 1944, the Soviet Army liberated the area where the partisans were.

Another group of Jews mostly from the Wlodawa area formed inside of the labor camp and eventually escaped. This group, led by Nachum Knopfmacher, eventually merged with Lichtenberg's group, but the two leaders had different ideas about the right actions to take in the short term. Lichtenberg was more focused on revenge and Knopfmacher was more focused on freeing Jews from Adampol Labor Camp.

Groups form Southwest of Lublin: By 1942, the last Jews of Krasnik had been deported to the Belzec Extermination Camp. Hundreds of them were able to escape into the woods before the deportation. Abraham Bron, partisan name Adolf, operated a unit that had 40 persons around Krasnik, where the Budzyn and Krasnik (Skret) Labor Camps were located, by the end of 1942. The group's initial concerns were finding food and carrying out small attacks on Polish police and German gendarmerie posts to acquire arms. They later were joined by around 30 escaped Soviet prisoners of war. The combined group attempted a series of attacks on trains, but had difficulty carrying out these attacks due to their lack of military training and the superior skills of the German enemy.

The Bron partisan group set up a family camp in the forests in which Jewish elderly, women, and children could stay under the protection of the partisan fighters. In spring, 1943 the group made contact with the Armia Ludowa and became another sub-unit of Grzegorz Korczynski's forces. Korczynski was the leader of the Armia Ludowa units in this part of the Lublin district, which included quite a few Jewish, Russian, and Polish sub-units. By summer, 1943 the Armia Ludowa organized these various units were reorganized into two groups: Battalion number 3, which consisted of Polish fighters, under Wladyslaw Skrzypek, and Battalion number 4 under Karol Lemichow-Herzenberger. The Jewish Adolf unit and a Russian unit were thus working side by side under the German Lemichow, who was made a commander of the Armia Ludowa after being injured during his service in the Red Army. Around September, 1943 Herzenberger conspired against the Jewish unit with a gang of Polish bandits under the leadership of Andrzej Kielbasa, who demanded that for him to serve with the Armia Ludowa all Jews must be removed from the unit. A plan was drawn up for the destruction of Abraham Bron's Jewish partisan unit. Nineteen Jewish partisans were murdered when their own unit, the Armia Ludowa fighters led by Kielbasa and Lieutenant Karol Herzenberger Lemichow, turned the arms on the Jewish fighters.


L-R: Karol Hertzenberg, Grzegorz Korczynski, Jan Wyderkowski.

A majority of the Jewish unit managed to escape their attackers, albeit quite narrowly. After this incident the Bron unit left the Armia Ludowa. A month earlier Kielbasa was involved in the murders of 26 other Jewish fighters, including Yaakov Freitag, the commander of a group of fugitives from Rzeczyca (near Poniatowa Concentration Camp). Frank Blaichman describes this incident his book as follows: "We learned that on September 9 a unit of the Polish National Armed Forces (NSZ) had killed 26 Jewish partisans in the Borowa Forest, south of Lublin. They had gained access to the partisans' base by pretending to want to help them and then had come at night and thrown grenades into the bunkers while the partisans slept. The AL later composed a song in memory of these partisans, but the words fail to mention that the partisans were Jews."

Herzenberger was killed on December 26, 1943 in a clash between his unit and the Germans. After his death, the Bron unit rejoined the Armia Ludowa. According to Shmuel Krakowski, the Jews made up a significant part of the Armia Ludowa forces operating out of bases in the forests of Lipsk in the winter of 1943-1944. The units were as follows: Lenek's group, a mixed unit of Jews and Russians numbering 43 fighters; Grzybowski's unit; Jastrzab's unit; Bohdan's unit; and Prohor's unit, which was an all-Jewish unit. By this time the Bron unit numbered around 25 fighters.

In winter and spring of 1944, the Jewish units gained new members: 26 prisoners who escaped from the Klemensow Labor Camp near Szczebrzeszyn , 60 prisoners who escaped from the Krasnik Labor Camp (called Skret), and 13 who prisoners escaped from the Budzyn Labor Camp. Only eight of the escapees from Skret camp reached the partisans. The Janowski and Wanda Wasilewska units, which included several dozen Jews among many Russians, also moved into the area. The Germans opened a large anti-partisan campaign in Poland on June 9, 1944 which included more than 25,000 fighters. The operation was led by the Nazis Haeneke and Bork.

At this time the partisans numbered around 5,000 fighters, including 3,000 Soviets, more than 1,500 Poles, and more than 100 Jewish fighters (most of whom belonged to the Adolf Bron unit). The partisans suffered heavy losses in battle and the Janowski and Wanda Wasilewska retained only around 1/5 of their members. The Adolf unit lost most of its members in a battle with Division 154 on June 14, 1944 in the forest of Janow Lubelski. It was just a few weeks before the area was liberated. Around 15 of the fighters were left. Additional information about resistance in the Krasnik area is available here. Abraham Bron is discussed on page 111 of "The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust" by Martin Gilbert.

Back to Grzegorz Korczynski. In 1942, the groups under his commanded and consisted of the following: A Jewish partisan unit from Frampol that had escaped from the ghetto; a group under Yaakov Freitag that had escaped from the village of Reczyca in Pulawy County; a group under Reuven Pintele's leadership; a group that escaped from the Majdanek Concentration Camp under the leadership of a partisan named Robert; and several non-Jewish Polish fighting groups.

Prior to joining up with Korczynski's group, Robert's Majdanek escapees carried out a successful ambush on the road near Bychawa, attacking two trucks carrying gendarmes, on October 15, 1942. Together, the combined unit successfully attacked the Germans at the Janiszow labor camp near Annopol on November 6, 1942. Although all of the prisoners were free to leave the camp, they had no resources such as food and arms, and many were either caught and killed or caught and sent to Budzyn Labor Camp. Around 60 prisoners successfully escaped, but were eventually attacked and murdered by armed Polish groups.

Next, Korczynski's unit was intent on attacking the Rejowiec-Lwow rail line. But on April 4, 1943, every Jewish partisan in the unit -- with one exception, Korczynski himself -- was murdered. The circumstances surrounding the deaths have never been explained. Additional details regarding Korchinsky's appalling anti-Jewish activities are available here.

Groups form South of Lublin: There were also several Jewish partisan groups that formed in the southern tier of the Lublin district. They were frequently in touch with Russian units that traveled in and out of the district and then headed back east. The Berek Joselowicz detachment under Eduard Forst had a base in Puszcza Solska, a little northwest of Jozefow in Tomaszow Lubelski County. The group formed and fought in April and May of 1943, but by August they had been murdered.

In May 1942, a group of young Jews from Tomaszow Lubelski -- led by Mendel Heller, Meir Kalichman (last name also possibly Kalechmaker or Lilkemakher), and Szymon Goldsztein -- organized a Jewish partisan unit. This unit fought the Germans for some time, but was betrayed by local Poles and annihilated.

According to Shmuel Krakowski, in July 1942, Jews and Poles joined Rayevski's Russian unit in the south of Lublin. This unit became the largest in the area and had three submachine guns and a few rifles as well as grenades and pistols for each fighter. Rayevski (Ryavski) decided to leave to go to Russia but the Jewish partisans stayed behind because they were familiar with the local area. The unit split up, with a majority heading east. The leftover Jewish unit, led by the brothers Chaskiel Met and Yaakov Met, was based in Kosznia near Frampol. A local forest watchman in Kosznia told the Germans exact details of the whereabouts of the Jewish partisans. The Jews killed this Polish collaborator. But when the Armia Krajowa found out about it, they spread anti-Jewish propaganda in the area and recruited hundreds of peasants to expel the partisans from the forests (source: Shmuel Krakowski).

On October 2, 1942, 300 Jews fled Frampol during the deportations to death camps. Some of them had acquired guns earlier and had them hidden in the forests. This group joined with Korczynski's Armia Ludowa unit and was wiped out before the end of 1943.

In the vicinity of Majdan Tyszowski, Tomaszow Lubelski county, a Jewish partisan unit commanded by a Jew from Lublin named Cudok (also spelled Tsadok, Tzadik or Chudak) established contact with the local unit of the Armia Krajowa. After a successful joint operation, the Armia Krajowa unit invited the Jewish combatants for a feast. The Jews were first served poisoned vodka and then fired upon. No one survived (source: Unequal Victims: Poles and Jews during World War).

There were many Jews hiding in the villages near Bychawa. At the end of 1942, about 70 Jews gathered in the garden of Faluch(?) -- but only 12 survived the war. According to the Yizkor book for Bychawa, Henek (Henryk) Zimerman was the leader of the most organized and most active Jewish partisans group in the area. With him was Josef Reznik, who was captured by the Polish Army in 1939 and escaped from the Lipowa 7 camp in Lublin. Reznik was in the area of the Dombrow and Osterlic forests.

Before the war Zimerman had taken their guns that were hidden in the forest. Then he gathered young Jews and hid in the forest. His name became famous in the area. The Zimerman partisan group consisted of between 12 and 20 fighters at various times. Even the 12 German gendarmes in Krasnik were afraid of them.

Zimerman tried to enlarge his activity. He contacted farmers in villages that would hide Jews. He alerted them that there would be consequences for those who murdered Jews. After a farmer named Balachuk turned in Zadok's brother-in-law, Zimerman burned his house and the partisan caught Balachuk and killed him. They put his body on the road and left a note that he was killed because he turned in a Jew to the Nazis.

Zimerman also supplied the hidden Jews food and he ordered the farmers to leave each evening outside their houses pots with cooked potatoes. At the beginning of 1943, Zimerman attacked the police station of Piotrkowek. He took from the seven policemen their weapons and set fire to the documents and Archive to prevent checking of false documents.

Partisan Mordechai "Motel" Sztrajnblic was in a cowshed and heard the shooting. He went to the forest and saw the Zimerman group killing four German gendarmes and three or four others were able to escape. Zimerman took their machine guns from them. In May or June 1943, Zimerman was arrested, but the arresting forces did not know he was a partisan . They took him to Piotrkowek, from where he was able to escape.

In the end of summer of 1943, Zimerman was killed along with six others, including Cudok. A German unit surrounded the village Mejdan-Damninski. They burned 12 houses of Zimerman and his group -- 16 people in total were hiding in a cowshed in the village. The German surrounded them. Zimerman tried to break out to the forest. The battle took from 11:00 until 16:00 hours. Zimerman continue to shoot until his last moment. Reznik and few others reached the forest and survived.

Groups form East of Lublin: There were more than a dozen Russian partisan groups in the Lublin district. There was significant overlap between the Russian partisan groups in the Lublin district and both the Red Army and the Armia Ludowa. One of the earliest Russian partisan group was called the Fioder group (also Pushkin's group, or Imienia Jozefa Bema). It consisted of both Jewish and non-Jewish Russian fighters, mostly escaped prisoners of war, and had around 40 unskilled fighters. It's leader was Fioder Kovalov (partisan name: Teodor Albrecht), a Soviet officer and escaped POW, and the group fought in the Makoszka forest near Parczew. The first battle of Fioder's partisans took place in November 1942. The partisans tried to beat off a German assault on a forest where a group of Parczew Jews were hiding. But the partisans were forced to retreat, and most of the Jews were killed on the spot. On Dec. 6-8, 1942, the partisans fought another battle in the Parczew forests. In spite of having considerable police and military forces, the Germans suffered significant losses while the partisans managed to successfully extract themselves out of the encirclement. On December 17, 1942 the Fioder unit captured the town of Ostrow Lubelski, killing a policeman and wounding a few others. During this battle a Polish police post was attacked, a post office, a dairy factory assisting the German war effort, and a German government office were destroyed. In the spring of 1943, Fioder's forces joined with Grynszpan's group. In the second half of 1943 and the beginning of 1944 Ostrow Lubelski was under the control of the Communist AL (Armia Ludowa). The following Jewish members were killed in action around Passover, 1943: Chuna Kot, Lejb Grinblat, Hersz Rodzinek, Yosef Waserman and Itzak Tarif. Eventually Fioder is believed to have gone into Russian territory (further east).


Moshe "Mischa" Edelstein, born 1923 in Kalisz, led a partisan unit.

A Russian group led by the Edelstein brothers and Itzhak Reichman numbered around 20 fighters. The Edelstein brothers were refugees from Kalisz who went to Povorsk, Ukraine and organized an underground resistance there. The group operated out of the forests. Misha Edelstein was humble and modest, but wanted revenge for the deaths of his parents and girlfriend Raja Plus. Today in Rivne there is a memorial in memory of Misha Edelstein. He was murdered in battle after the liberation. Pasha Reichman later joined another unit and went to Israel after the war.

Another Soviet partisan group, led by Kolka, is discussed above.

A fourth Soviet partisan group, called the Janowski group, is discussed in the next section below.

The Wanda Wasilewska brigade led by Oleksiy Fedorov (Alex Fyodorov) was a large brigade of mixed Jewish and non-Jewish fighters. This group mostly fought east of the Bug River, but eventually crossed westward to take on the Germans more directly. According to partisan survivor Ben Kamm, the Fyodorov Brigade had destroyed 549 German trains by the end of 1943. Many of the groups, including the Fyodorov group, received airdrops from Russia, which included such needs as ammunition, mines, and medicines. They also received regular reports from Radio Moscow. The group's objectives were to distribute weapons to the local population and to get as many people to fight as possible.

Jews Who Fought with the Armja Ludowa: Several units also joined with the Armia Ludowa, the left-wing Polish forces fighting the Nazis. Most of the Jews involved in the AL were not political at all, but simply were fighting to sustain their livelihood. The Janowski group was one such group who fought with the Armia Ludowa. This mixed group, which had around 50 to 70 fighters in 1944, was led by Jews Leon Kasman and Leon Bielski. The Janovski group arrived to Parczew forests at the beginning of 1943, crossing west from the Bug. Their main mission was to free the Poniatowa Labor Camp near Opole Lubelski. However before that took place, in November of 1943, all of the Jews in Poniatowa were murdered. The group continued moving west and came to Mielec, Poland near the end of the war. They succeeded in attacking German units and blowing up trains. They received heavy support from Russia, as the heads of the unit had strong ties to the Russian military. They also took revenge on a Polish family that had shot the Jews they were hiding, however the location of this incident is not known.

Jewish doctor Michael Temchin was a commander in the Armia Ludowa, a leftist underground organization in Poland. His unit, which consisted of both Jews and non-Jews, was active around Krasnik, Lublin district. They planned to rescue Jews from the Krasnik Ghetto. However those inside the Ghetto were hesitant to allow the partisans to act, and in one night the entire Krasnik Ghetto was wiped out with few managing to survive or escape.

A significant number of Jews reached important positions in the Polish partisan movement, especially in Units on the left, the AL, and the Socialist Fighting Organization. The Commander of the largest Partisan Battalion in Generalgouvernement territory was the Jewish Officer, Alexander Skotnicki (Captain Zemsta), who was included among the Armia Ludowa's renowned organizers list.

General Rola-Zimierski, the commander of the Armia Ludowa, declared at a meeting of the Polish National Assembly on the 2nd of January 1946: "Jewish soldiers fought against the occupation forces with much devotion and courage. They were valiant fighters and very often great heroes" and in his letter to the Organization of Jewish Partisans (F.P.O.), the general wrote: "Among the Jews who remained alive there were thousands who went into the woods to fight with arms, and fought together with their Polish partisan comrades against the common enemy."

This is a list of the Jewish partisans who operated in the Lublin district during the Holocaust. Names are approximations based on various sources.
Many of the names are Polish proper names, so Jozef = Josef = Joe and Rojza = Rosa = Rose. Other names are Yiddish or Hebrew names, so
Yaakov = Jakub = Jacob and Chana = Hanka = Hannah. To add a name to this list, please contact us.




KAMIONKA PARTISANS
Kamionka Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Frank Blaichman, co-leader
Kamionka, Dec. 11, 1922New YorkPhotos available; testimony available
Hershel HerszmanStaroscinMurdered Jan. 31, 1943
Josef HerszmanStaroscin, 1920Murdered Jan. 31, 1943The Jan. 31, 1943 murders took place at Majarka near Garbow
Jusek HerszmanStaroscin, 1927Murdered
Leon HerszmanStaroscinIsrael
Max Naftali Jammer or Yenier***??
Jankiel Klerer, co-leaderKamionka?Murdered in 1943Discussed in: "Resistance: Teen Partisans and Resisters" by Dvorson
Blimka LambergKamionka, ~1925Murdered Jan. 31, 1943
Mendel LambergKamionkaMurdered
Franciszek Efraim LewinKamionka, 1917Died in Frankfurt, GermanyChanged his name to Efraim Lewinski
Usher LewinKamionkaMurdered ~1943
Abram RaisKamionka?Murdered Jan. 31, 1943
Ester RaisKamionka?, ~1925Murdered Jan. 31, 1943
Moshe Sznajderman1917Died December 14, 2000 in Israel
Moniek ShtengelWarsaw?"returned to Warsaw"
Chaim from MichowMichow?
Shabse (unknown)KamionkaMurdered Jan. 31, 1943
Simcha (unknown)***?Murdered




MARKUSZOW PARTISANS
Markuszow Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Wladek Edelsztejn (Edelstein)MarkuszowMurdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora
Dawid EtyngerMarkuszowMurdered in 1943
Adam Atash FiszbeinMarkuszow, 1916Israel
Josef FiszbeinMarkuszow, 1923Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora
Szloma GoldwasserMarkuszowMurdered 1943-1944
Chil GothelfMarkuszow, ~1915 Australia
Ita GothelfMarkuszow, 1919Australia?Married to Chiel
Jacob Gothelf Markuszow, 1919?Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora
Yerucham GothelfMarkuszowMurdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora
Mordechai Kerschenbaum (Kerszenbaum) MarkuszowMurdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa GoraPhoto available
Moshe Martin KirszenbojmMarkuszowMurdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa GoraPhotos available
Szmuel LaksMarkuszowDied January 27, 1988 in Israel
Wladek "Wolf" LaksMarkuszowMurdered in 1943
Chaja LotersteinMarkuszowParis, France
Michael LotersteinMarkuszow, 1924Paris, FrancePhoto available
(unknown) MikoiRussiaMurderedNon-Jew
Szlomo MorelGarbow, 1919Died in 2007 in IsraelFalsely accused of war crimes by the Polish government.
Yitzchak MorelGarbowMurdered in 1943
Moshe Pelz (Marcin Pelc)Markuszow, 1917IsraelEscaped from the Jastkow Labor Camp
Simon RabinerMarkuszowMurdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa GoraPhotos available
Isser Israel Rosenberg, commanderMarkuszow, 1919Killed by accident in 1943
Bella RubinsteinMarkuszowDied in USAWife of Dawid
Blimka RubinsteinMarkuszowDied in USAPhoto available
Dawid RubinsteinMarkuszowDied in USA
Sever Shmuel Rubinstein MarkuszowDied in New YorkPhoto available
Moshe SznaiderMarkuszow??
(unknown) TolkaKharkov, UkraineMurdered in February, 1943Non-Jew
Hanka or Chancia TomalewiczMarkuszowIsrael
Wladek TomalewiczMarkuszowIsrael
Shmuel Toper (Topper)MarkuszowMurdered in 1944 at Bug River
Stefan TumanMarkuszowBrazil
Dawid WeingartenMarkuszow?Israel
Liebl from MarkuszowMarkuszowMurdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa GoraSon of a shoemaker



Plater group (L-R): Zelazny "Iron" Ajzenberg, Martin Kirszenbaum, Mordechai "Marczynek" Kirszenbaum, Simon Rabiner.

EMILIA PLATER GROUP
Emilia Plater Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Icek Eisenberg (Ajzenberg)MarkuszowMurdered 1943-1945
Salomon "Shlomo" Ejsenberg (Eisenberg) Markuszow, 1916Died in Tiberius, IsraelPhoto available; nicknamed Iron ("Zelaszny") Eisenberg
Bronislawa Garbarz (Garbacz)Komarowka PodlaskaIsrael?
Szyja Goldberg Lublin, 1900Died in IsraelTestimony available
Josef Iberklejd (Iberkleid) |||GarbowMurdered 1942-1945
Emil Shmuel Yager (Jaeger)***, commanderUkraine, 1914Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora
Marcin Kirszenblat1923France and SwitzerlandChanged his name to Marcel Garshon
Mietek Kirszenblat1911Australia
Szymon MalinowskiLomza?MurderedFought near Trawniki
Berl MitelbergLublin?Murdered 1944-1946Photo available; Escaped from Majdanek CC
Jan RykKurow, Feb. 11, 1917?Later fought with Alexander Skotnicki's AL forces
Dora Wassersztrum (Wasserstrom)Markuszow?, 1924?
Natan Westelsznajder (Westschneider)Markuszow, 1923Israel
Pinkus Ziskind***Dubno, 1912Died in 1976 in IsraelPhoto available; later fought with the Armia Ludowa
Shimon (unknown)?Kfar Saba, Israel
Tzigan (Cygan)***?Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa GoraNickname of an escaped POW from Lipowa 7



Samuel "Mietek" Gruber, partisan leader.

MIETEK (KOZIETULSKI) PARTISANS
Mietek (Kozietulski) Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
(unknown) Andreiov***Bialystok?Murdered in 1943-1944
Boris Dov Berezin***Niedzwiedzica, 1915Israelaka Mikolai Berezin; photo available; testimony available (in Yiddish)
Mark Marian Dworecki (Dvaretsky)***?Died 1945-1947 in GermanyPhoto available; was in charge of making bombs
Stefan Finkiel***Lithuania, 1915Died in 1996 in Hollywood, FloridaPhotos available; changed his name to Sam Finkel
Roman Fiszer***Warsaw?Died in Tel Aviv, IsraelMarried a woman named Tzesia; fought in the Warsaw Ghetto
Aron Gotz***Lwow?, June 2, 1918Died in March, 1972 in St. Louis, MissouriPhoto available
Shmuel Mietec Gruber***, commanderPidhaitsi (Podhajce), 1913Died in 2006 in New YorkChanged his name to Samuel Gruber; video testimony available
Adam Halpern |||Warsaw, 1918IsraelPhoto available
Berko or Josef Kaganowicz***~1916Murdered before 1943
Geniek Lipman***?Murdered
Jusiek Jerzy MarcinekMarkuszow areaFranceFought with "the Cossaks" of Markuszow
Boris Matros***1917Murdered in 1944
Jusek Piasecki (Pisacki)BystrzejowiceMurdered in 1945Fought with "the Cossaks" of Markuszow
Itka Rok |||Warsaw?Had a 6 year old son named David
Janek Jankiel Rok |||Warsaw, 1918Israel
Josef Rok |||Warsaw, 1914Israel
Wladek Zeev Rak |||Warsaw, June 1, 1923Israelaka Moshe Rok; photo available
Dawid Sajfert***Brzezany, 1912Murdered 1943-1945Photo available
Haim Henryk Schongot***Chocznia, 1914Murdered ~1943
Jankiel Waingarten***Ostrolenka, 1907Murdered in March, 1944Photo available
Vladimir Wolodia Walach?Murdered
Shlomo Wallach***Pidvolochysk, 1912Murdered in 1944
Fabian Wladyslaw Wolstein*** Stanislawow, 1917Murdered in Lublin or Bialystok?Photo available; previously imprisoned at Altengrabow
Hanka Zelman |||Warsaw, 1924Tel Aviv, Israel
Furman***?Killed by accident 1943-1945Nickname of an escaped POW from Lipowa 7
Maczin***?Likely murderedNickname of an escaped POW from Lipowa 7



Back row, from left: Harold Werner, Symcha Barbanel, Dora Grynszpan, Abram Grynszpan, Wladek Litwak;
front, from left: Chanina Henry Barbanel, Abram the Patzan, Shienka from Wlodawa.

WLODAWA PARTISANS
Wlodawa Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Chaim Ajzen Hrubieszow, 1923AustraliaChanged his name to Henry Steel; photo available; testimony available;
later fought with the Molotova partisans
Chaim BarbanelWlodawaMurdered in 1943 by AK
Chanina BarbanelMarianka, 1922New JerseyChanged his name to Henry Barbanel; photos available; testimony available
Chanche BarbanelWlodawaSURVIVED
Gedalia "Geniek" BarbanelWlodawa, 1926Hadera, Israel
Motel BarbanelWlodawa, 1907Died in 1991 in USARachmiel Barbanel's brother
Shimon "Sam" BarbanelMarianka, 1918MassachusettsNicknamed Simcha from Marianka; Photo available
Yankel Barbanel (())Dubeczno, 1925Los AngelesChanged his name to Jack Barbanel; nicknamed "Vuyo"; Photo available
Yosel BarbanelMariankaMurdered in 1943-1945Brother of Simcha and Chanina; their father was Rachmiel
Bollek BeckermanWlodawa, 1924Died in 2013 in FloridaChanged his name to Bob Becker
Asalke "Ilke" BorensztejnWlodawaMurdered in 1943
Chaska BrojsblatWlodawa, 1925FloridaBecame Chasia Lederman; testimony available
Dawid Cin (())Wlodawa, 1921IsraelAlso spelled: David Tzinn
Moshe CynWlodawaDied Dec., 1988 in Montreal
Nasan CynWlodawa?Murdered by AK
Majer Deresz (Derysz)Lublin?Died in Munich, Germany
Szymon Shimlay ErlichWlodawa, 1925IsraelPhoto available; fought with the Molotova partisans
Moshe FarbmanWlodawaLikely murdered
Moshe "Mishke" FeldmanPinsk, 1917Committed suicide in 1943
Isralke "Srulke" Fiszman (Fishbein?)WlodawaMurdered 1942-1944
Chaim Fiszman (())WlodawaMurdered 1943-1944Nicknamed Chaim Tancer ("dancer")
Josef Frajtag (Freitag)*Wlodawa, 1923Died in Israel
Manya FriedmanWarsawMurdered 1943-1944Photo available
Shmuel FriedmanWarsawMurdered 1942-1943
Sasha "Samek" GanzWarsaw, 1914Died in IsraelPhotos available; testimony available; later joined Molotova partisans
Lovka Leon GildermanUkraine, 1911 IsraelChanged his name to Leon Czarnobrodzki; photo available; later joined
the Molotova partisans
Srulka GlincmanWlodawa, 1918Died in 2013 in New Jersey
Yankale GlincmanWlodawa, May 30, 1930Died in 2008 in Floridaaka Jack Glincman; testimony available
Yuschka GlincmanWlodawa, 1913Died in 1999 in Toronto, CanadaPhoto available
Mordechai Greenwald (Grinwald)AdampolIsrael
Chaim HindelLodzKilled by accident before 1945
Bolek Huberman?Frankfurt, Germany
Zeev Wolf JungsztajnZamosc, 1935Murdered by Poles
Josef KahanWlodawaToronto, CanadaPhoto available
Symcha KahanWlodawa, 1920 Haifa, Israel
Nachum KnopfmacherWlodawa, 1919IsraelPhoto available
Michael KnopfmacherWlodawa, Dec. 10, 1926Haifa, IsraelChanged his name to Michael Kaftori; photo and testimony available;
nicknamed Moshe from Kolacze; later fought with Molotova partisans
Pesia Kreis Knopfmacher (()) Wlodawa, 1922IsraelAlso called Perla; photo available; testimony available
Chawa KotParczewMurdered before 1945
Chuna Kot (())Uhnin, 1919Murdered in 1943
Lejb KotParczew, 1915Died in 1996 in Israel
Anshel KrechmanLublinSURVIVED
Abraham LebenbaumParczewIsraelFought with the Molotova partisans
Avigdor LedermanWlodawa, 1898IsraelFought with the Molotova partisans
Srulke LedermanWlodawa, May 3, 1935Died August, 1988 in BC, CanadaChanged his name to Samuel Lederman; testimony available
Yankele Lederman Wlodawa, 1927Died in 2003 in British ColumbiaChanged his name to Jack Lederman
Leon Lemberger LukowskiWlodawa, 1922Israel
Shlomo LembergerWlodawaKibbutz Merhavia (still living)
Moshe Lichtenberg, leaderWlodawa, ~1917Murdered in 1943Photo available
Sara LustigmanWlodawa, 1924IsraelBecame Sara Omolinski
Leonid Leon Nemzer***, co-leader1912 Poland?Photo available; previously in the Polish army; joined Molotova partisans
Abram "Abie" PomerancWyryki, 1932Died in 2008 in New JerseyPhoto available
Cyla PomerancWyryki, March 15, 1926New YorkMarried Frank Blaichman; Became Cesia Blaichman
Hanka Pomeranc1917USA
Jurek PomerancWyryki, 1926Died in GermanyPhoto available
Shaja Pomeranc1920 Died in IsraelLater fought with the Ponamorenko partisans
Motel Rabinowitz (Rabinowich)1915Likely murderedPhoto available; later fought with the Molotova partisans
Motel Rozenberg (()), co-leaderWlodawaMurdered in 1943
Fajga RosenblumZamolodycze, 1926Murdered
Mendel RosenblumZamolodyczeMurdered in 1943
Zelik RosenblumZamolodyczeMurdered in 1943
Isaac Rotenberg*Wlodawa, 1925Murdered in 1994 in IsraelPhotos available; Murdered by 2 non-Jews with an axe in 1994
Israel RotenbergWlodawaMurderedPhoto available
Greta Borger RosteinMielecIsrael
Israel Moshe RotsteinWarsawIsraelNicknamed Moniek Rotstein
Abram or Pinkus Sheftel (Szeftel)WlodawaUSA?
Alexander "Sasha" Shienka (())WlodawaIsraelPhotos available; last name also spelled Shenko, Shienko, Shenka
Moszek Spiewak*** (())?Murdered
Leon Szporer (Shporer)Skorodnica?, 1917Montreal, CanadaPhoto available
Wigdor SzporerSkorodnica?, 1915Montreal, CanadaPhoto available
Shmuel Sztul (Stal/Stoll/Stul/Stuhl)Wlodawa, March 11, 1919Venezuela?Photo available
Tema Kreis Turkienic (())Wlodawa, 1924Died in 2012 in IsraelBecame Tamara Turkieniec; Photo available
Bebale Weisman (())Marianka, ~1933Murdered in 1944
Chaim Wajsman (Weisman) (())MariankaIsraelPhoto available
Chaim Wolf (Wulf)***Wlodawa?Israel
Ludwik WurcelmanLukow, 1925 New YorkPhoto available; later fought with the Molotova partisans
Hershel ZimmermanGorzkow, 1918Died in 1990 in New JerseyChanged his name to Harold Werner; photo available; testimony available
David from HolaHolaMurdered in 1943
David from TurnoTurnoLikely murderedCalled "David Turno"; Jewish land owner
Chazan Lejb (Leib)~1922Likely murderedOrphaned cantor from Lublin yeshiva
Hershel from KodeniecKodeniecLikely murdered
Isa from HolaHolaMurdered in 1943
Mishka?Murdered in 1943-1944Escaped Prisoner of War
Moshe the Butcher (())WlodawaDied in IsraelNicknamed Moshe Peshalis (son of Pesia); photo available
Moshe Yoel from HolaHolaMurdered in 1943
Nuchem from TurnoTurno, ~1922Likely murdered
Pearl from HolaHolaMurdered in 1943
Tuvia from KaliszKalisz?
Vashka the RussianRussiaMurdered 1943Non-Jew
Yankel from WarsawWarsaw?Nephew of Dawid Turno
Yankel from KodeniecKodeniecLikely murdered
Itzik10 year old partisan?Later joined the Soviet partisans



From top, left: Dudkin Rubinstein, Jurek Pomeranc, Lonka Chaim Fefferkorn, Lova (Leon) Zitzman, Chil Grynszpan,
Yehuda Junak Milsztajn, Josef Rolnik, unknown Russian fighter. Kneeling, from left: Abie Rubinstein (Abram the Patzan),
Henry Barbanel, and Kirlow Rubinstein. The Grynspzan partisans in the Parczew forests, circa 1943.


Those below listed with a @ after their names also fought with the Wlodawa partisans, listed above. There was significant overlap between the two groups.

HOLOD #2 (CHIL) PARTISANS
Holod Battalion #2 (Chil) Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Jakub Ajnspann (Einspan) WlodawaIsrael?
Hannah Berkowitz@Skorodnica, Oct. 10, 1910FloridaTestimony available
Hershel Berkowitz@ SkorodnicaFloridaPhoto available
Shaindel "Sonia" BernhardKomarowka PodlaskaCanadaBecame Sonia Wajstaub
Szymek Bernhard (Berhardt)Komarowka Podlaska, Nov. 20, 1924Winnipeg, CanadaChanged his name to Simon Berchard
Chaim Eliezar Blumenkranz ?Murdered
Abraham Cholomski ZaliszczeUSA
Chancia Cholomski Zaliszcze?
Rostka Duman Cholomski@ZaliszczeNew York Became Rose Holm; photo available
Yurek Cholomsky@ZaliszczeDied in 2003 in New YorkChanged his name to Joe Holm; photos available
Abram CukierYekaterinburg, 1920USA?
Josef Jusiek Cynowiec***Pinsk, 1916Haifa, IsraelMarried a Jewish partisan named Irka
Abram Czarny***Lachowicze, 1915Likely murderedPhoto available
Berko Ekhauz (Eckhauz)ParczewMurdered
Boruch "Butchke" ElbaumParczew, 1901Died in SwedenOccupation: surgeon
Edek Elbaum Parczew, 1916SwedenAlso called Ela Elbaum
Chaim Engel*Lodz/Brudzew, 1916Died in 2003 in Branford, CTVideo testimony available
Marcus ErdepelKonskowola, 1910Died in 1973 in Israelaka Mordechai Erdepel; photo available
Andre Etman
Parczew, Sept. 2, 1935New YorkTestimony available
Judka Yehuda Fajgenbaum1927Rishon Le Tzion, IsraelPhoto available
Chaim Lonka Feferkorn@Parczew, 1921IsraelPhotos available
Ada Fiszer*Jaroslaw/Wieliczka, Jan. 1, 1915IsraelMarried Jitschak Lichtman; photo available; testimony available
David Friedman (())SosnowicaDied in USANicknamed "David the Tall One from Sosnowica"
Fajga Zipora FrydmanParczew, ~1930IsraelBecame Zipora Koren; Photo available
Ignacy Yitzchak FrymerLublin, 1908?
Hilda GimpelIzbica Kujowska, 1917Los Angeles, CA Became Hilda Eisen; photo available; testimony available
Leon Laib Giterman***Lutowiska, Nov. 16, 1914 Israel?
Jakub Glazer1914?
Catharina "Kitty" Gokkes*The Hague, Sept. 30, 1925Died of typhus on Sept. 20, 1944Called Cathy; tall with red hair; photo available
Wladek Mordechai Goldfarb*Piaski Luterskie, March 15, 1920 Died June 8, 1984 in Haifa, IsraelPhotos available
Dawid Goldberg??
Zygmunt Zalman GoldmanParczew, 1915Died in Tel Aviv
Sam Goldwasser@Parczew, 1926Montreal, CanadaNicknamed "Polimiot"; photos available
Leon Greenblatt GrimblovskyStary OrzechowIsraelPhoto available; testimony available (in Hebrew)
Abram Grynszpan@ Sosnowica, 1913BrazilPhoto available
Dora Lask Grynszpan@ Lodz, Jan. 20, 1922BrazilPhoto available; testimony available
Yechiel "Chil" Grynszpan@, commander Sosnowica, July 6, 1916BrazilPhotos available; testimony available
Aryeh Helfgot***1916IsraelLeader of partisan group of eight fighters
Mietek Himelblat (Kimmelblat)Lublin?, 1906?
Ella HipszmanWarsaw, Dec. 8, 1932MassachusettsTestimony available
Yankel Jakob HolenderWlodawaSURVIVED
Josef HonigsblumLubartow/Lublin, 1916?
Srul Jakubowicz?SURVIVED
Aron KodenzakNowy OrzechowMurdered in 1943 near Glebokie
Itzhak KornParczew/Ostrow LubelskiMurdered
Sucha KornParczewDied in Israel
Zalman KornParczew, 1919Murdered in 1945 near Lodz by AKCalled Zalman from Parczew
Moshe KrochmalKodeniecMurdered in 1943 near Glebokie
Akiba KupermanParczew, 1914IsraelPhoto available
Jankiel Kupersztajn (Kupersztejn)Parczew, 1911Israel
Lejb Kupersztajn ParczewIsrael
Shmuel Kupersztajn ParczewIsrael
Yehuda "Leon" Lerner*Warsaw, 1926Died Dec. 7, 2007 in IsraelNicknamed "Atleta"; photos available
Icek Lerer 1926?
Simcha LewinsonSosnowicaMurdered
Eliyahu LibermanParczewIsraelAlso called Elias Liberman
Itzchak Lichtman*Zolkiewka, Dec. 10, 1908IsraelPhotos available
Velval "Wladek" Litwak@Sosnowica, 1923Brazilaka Zeev Litwak; nicknamed Velvale the Patzan^;
Photos and testimony available
Aslek? Margulies*Zyrardow, 1921Died in 1984 in Israelaka Abraham Margulies; photo available
Abraham MilechParczew, 1917Canada
David Milech Parczew, 1928Died in 2002 in Canada
Moshe Milech ParczewCanada
Abraham MillerLublin?Israel?Fought with Skotnicki's AL forces
Cypora Miller@Holowno?, 1922Israel?
Genia Milsztajn (Millstein)Lublin, 1919Israel?
Junak Milsztajn (Millstein)Serock, 1925Israelaka Yehuda Millstein; photo available
Naum Plotnicki*Belarus, 1913Died in IsraelPhotos available; changed his name to Chaim Plotnikow
Josef Pankenfeld ??
Szaja Prikam@1915?
Benjamin RajberParczew??
Josef Reznik***Grodno, 1912Israel
Irena Rubinek (Robanek)1923?
Josef Yefim RolnikKharkov, Jan. 15, 1915FloridaPhotos available; testimony available;
cousin of Yankel from Kodeniec
Sewer Rosen (Rozen)Kurow, 1922Died in Raciborz, Poland
Hershel Rubenstein (Rubensztejn) ||| @WarsawMurdered in 1944-1945Communist activist; nicknamed "Commisar"
Josef RubinParczew, Sept. 25, 1930FloridaTestimony available
Abram RubinsteinZahajki, 1927-1930DetroitPhoto available; nicknamed Abram the Patzan^
Bronislawa RubinsteinWlodawa, Jan. 27, 1927Died in 2013 in Los AngelesBecame Bronia Rubinstein; married Sol
Dudkin Dawid RubinsteinZahajki (Zahaika), 1919DetroitChanged his name to David Russell
Itzik RubinsteinZahajkiMurdered?
Kerlow RubinsteinZahajkiDied in Detroit, Michigan
Lewek RubinsteinZahajki, 1922Murdered?
Szlema "Senka" RubinsteinZahajki, Jun. 26, 1915Died in 2011 in in Los AngelesChanged his name to Sol Rubinstein
Josef Ruchelsman (Reishelsman)Jlawa/Olsztyn, 1915Israel?
Orsula Stern-Buchheim*Essen, Aug. 28, 1928Died in 1985 in Ashdod, IsraelBecame Ilana Safran; photos available
Itsak SuchowolskiParczew, Oct. 5, 1922Died Sept., 2010 in IllinoisChanged his name to Irving Wolsk; testimony available
Berek Bernard Szwarc (Schwartz)***Ustrzyki, 1903Israel?Photo available
Szloma SzwarczHrubieszow, 1923Israel
Henryk Chaim Schiffenbauer (Szupenbir)??
Helena Szteinwawe (Steinwave)1923?
Boris Taborinsky*Slonim, 1917Russia or IsraelLater joined Soviet partisans
David TempyParczew, 1904Murdered in 1946 in Parczew
Mindla TorbinerMay 16, 1916Died in 2005 in CanadaBecame Mindel Shupak
Israel "Srulke" Trager*Chelm, 1906Died in 1969 in IsraelPhotos available here and here
Mendel Turbiner (Torbiner)Parczew?, 1915Murdered in 1946 in Parczew
Reuven TurbinerSosnowicaMurdered in 1943 near Glebokie
Henryk Haim Wajnsztajn1925?
Ita Wertman1910?
Selma Wijnberg*Zwolle, May 15, 1922Branford, CTBecame Selma Engel; photos available
Abram Winderbaum Lomazy, May 8, 1923FloridaChanged his name to Adam Winder; video testimony available;
later fought with Skotniki's AL forces
Lyowa ZitzmanParczewIsraelaka Leon Zitzman; photos available
Abram Zisman (Zysman) Parczew, 1903Murdered in 1946 in ParczewNicknamed Abram Bochian
Abram from ZmiarkaZmiarkaMurdered by AK
Dennis from SosnowicaSosnowicaMurdered in 1943
Donachy from ZahajkiZahajkiLikely murderedNickname of a woman at the Tabor camp site
Eli from ParczewParczewMurdered
Harry from WarsawWarsaw?
Nisan from SosnowicaSosnowicaMurdered
Shainche from Ostrow Ostrow Lubelski Died of illness in 1943
Shmuel from HolownoHolownoIsrael



Former Soviet prisoners of war -- Jews who were in Sobibor and who had originated in Russia.
A gathering in memory of the uprising. Pictured (left to right): Jefim Litwinowsky, Arkady Wayspapir,
Alexander Pechersky, Alexei Waytzen, Nahum Plotnitsky, Simeon Rozenfeld.


SOVIET PARTISANS
Soviet Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
(unknown) AdlerTarnogrod?Fought in Kovpak's unit
Lipa Lipman Aronowicz***Parczew, Jan. 5, 1917IsraelFought with Krasni partisans led by Abramowitz
Moshe Bahir*Plock, July 19, 1927 Died Nov., 2002 in IsraelFought in Kovpak's unit
General BaranovskiHungary?Led a group of fighters in Russia and Poland
Jacob Biskubicz*Hrubieszow, March 17, 1926Ramat Gan, Israel Photos available; fought with Stefan Kaplun's unit in Polesie
Mordko Cholomski ZaliszczeNew York Changed his name to Morris Holm
Boris Cibulskiy*Ukraine, 1907-1910Died in NovosibirskHas a son named Nikolai
Grisha EdelsteinKalisz?
Misha EdelsteinKalisz, 1923Murdered fall, 1944Memorial stone at Rivne, Ukraine
Aleksander Fedorov Dnipropetrovsk, 1901Died in 1989 in Kiev Commanded the Chernigov partisan unit
Hela Felenbaum*Lublin, Nov. 25, 1925Died 1988 in Gedera, IsraelBecame Hela Weiss; photos available
Aba FlajsherRussia, 1914 ?Fought with the Pushkin partisans
Dov Freiberg*Warsaw, 1927Died in 2008 in IsraelPhoto available; testimony available
Yaakov GarbowLublin areaIsrael?
Pesia GrynszpanWlodawa, 1927IsraelPhoto available; became Pesia Rubacha
Zyndel Honigman*Kiev, April 10, 1910Died in 1989 in New JerseyPhotos available; cousin of Harold Werner
Mordechai KalmanowiczWojslawiceIsrael?Testimony available in Wojslawice Yizkor book
Fiodor KovalevRussia?Leader of the Pushkin partisans
Sydir KovpakKharkov, 1887Died in 1967Non-Jew
Yankale LedermanWlodawa, 1920FloridaTestimony available; changed his name to Jack Lederman
Chaim Litwinowski*Russia, 1911Died in 1994 in Soviet UnionPhotos available here and here
Sara LustigmanWlodawa, 1924IsraelBecame Sara Omelinski
Moshe ManosDubrovitsa, Nov. 17, 1926Murdered March 29, 1943
Maksim Misyura Russia?Non-Jew; photo available; led group of Jews from Sarnik,
Dabrowica, Wlodimierzec; fought with Voroshilov battalion
Shmuel OszlakZelechowMurdered Feb. 12, 1944Fought with the Alekseyev partisans
Alexander Petsjerski*Kremenets, 1909Died 1990 in Rostov-on-Don, Soviet UnionPhotos available; changed his name to Sasha Pechersky
(unknown) Plaszkowski*?MurderedFought in Kovpak's unit
Janek PomerancWyrykiNew YorkChanged his name to Jack Pomeranc; photos available
Pasha ReichmanRussia, 1917Died in 2005 in IsraelChanged his name to Itzchak Avidov; fought in Kovpak's unit
Chaim RosensonKurowMurderedPhoto available
Sana RosensonKurowIsraelPhoto available
Alexander Shubayev*BelarusMurdered 1943-1945Killed Nazi Sobibor cammander Johann Niemann with an axe
David Sierczuk* (Sirczuk/Serchuk)Chelm, 1920Murdered?Photo available; fought with Shubetidze brigade
Emanuel or Julius Zinger***Waszkowce, 1903 or 1915Murdered 1943-1946Fought with Krasni partisans led by Abramowitz
Zvi Sobelman*Holeszow, ~1930Died in 1948 in IsraelFought in Kovpak's unit
Josef Sterdyner***Legionowo Israel
Shmuel SzmajznerPulawy, March 13, 1927Died on March 3, 1989 in Goiania, BrazilChanged his name to Stanislaw Smajzner; Photos available
Kalman TeitelbaumKoroplow, 1922Died in 1985 in Ashdod, IsraelChanged his name to Zdiszek Teitelbaum;
fought with the Krokopyuk group
Arkady Wajspapir*Ukraine, 1921Russiaaka Arkadii Weisspapier; video testimony available
Rivka WeisblattWlodawa, 1927IsraelPhoto available
Sara WeisblattWlodawa, 1920IsraelPhoto available
Kalman Wewryk*Chelm, 1906CanadaPhoto available; testimony available
Sonia Wolcowska (Volkoviskaia)Russia?, 1923?Fought with the October (Oktiabr) partisans



ARMIA LUDOWA PARTISANS
Armia Ludowa Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Staszek Bialek??Non-Jew
Leon BielskiPolandDied in WarsawFought with the Janowski partisans
Chaim or Abram Blacher** Belarus?Likely murderedArmia Ludowa unit led by Korchinsky
Mikolaj Demko, generalLodz, 1913Died in 1986 in PolandPartisan name: Mietek Moczar; Non-Jew
Pawel Dubek??Non-Jew
Ignacy FarbsteinParczew, May 5, 1920USA Changed his name to Isadore Farbstein; photo available; testimony available;
Fought with Grynszpan's group and Skotnicki's AL forces
Eliezer Lejzor GinsbergUstilugDrowned on Dec. 5, 1944Fought with Skotnicki's AL partisans
Wolf Glaicher*** Tarnobrzeg, 1912Murdered near PulawyArmia Ludowa unit led by Korchinsky
Mordko Glebocki??aka Mordko Glembicki/Schneor Glembotzky; fought near Biala Podlaska
Gerszon Gutman |||, commander Lomza, 1916Died in 1979 in WarsawChanged his name to Gustaw Alef-Bolkowiak; photos available
Stefan Kaminsky??Partisan name: Geniek Kaminsky; Non-Jew
Sidor Karziesz??Non-Jew
Jan HolodWlodawa areaMurdered in 1944Partisan name: Vanka Kirkpiczny (Kirpicznik); Non-Jew
Leon Kasman, commanderLodz, Oct. 28, 1905 Died in 1984 in WarsawFought with the Janowski partisans
Stanislaw Jerzy LecLviv, 1909Died in 1966 in Warsaw
Geniek Maksula??Non-Jew
Wictor Margulis1909Israelaka Stanislaw Sierpinski; photos available
Benjamin MandelkernParczew, 1916Ontario, CanadaFought with the Armia Krajowa
Leon Marzenta, captainUkraine?Non-Jew
Konstanty Mastalerz1893Died in 1986 in PolandNon-Jew
Mikolaj Meluch (Mielich/Milicz)Uhnin?Nicknamed Kolka; Non-Jew and Anti-Semite
Ruth Wanda Michalska?Likely murderedFought with the Janowski group
Michael Rola-Zymierski, generalKrakow, 1890Died in 1989 in PolandNon-Jew
Jakob RotenbergWlodawa, July 15, 1924Died in Australiaaka Jakob Friedmann; fought in Janowski group; testimony available
Bronia Schumacher?United StatesFought with the Janowski group
Aleksander Skotnicki (Skutnitzki), commanderLvovMurdered in May, 1944aka General Zemsta ("revenge"); photo available
Israel Jankiel Sukman (Szuchman)Krasnik, 1918Murdered in 1943Escaped from Krasnik Labor Camp
Mischa SztalhamerKrasnik, Oct. 16, 1923Died in 2012 in SwedenPhoto available; testimony available; escaped from Krasnik Labor Camp
Abraham Szejner (Schoener)Starachowice, Nov. 12, 1919?aka Avraham Scheiner; photo available
Jan Szelubski*** Lithuania, March 25, 1916Died in 1985 in IsraelPhoto available; Armia Ludowa unit led by Korchinsky
Mordechai SzlajcherBilgorajMurdered?Photo available; fought with Kunitski partisans
Moses Michael Temchin (Temczyn)Pinsk, 1909Died in 1990 in New YorkNicknamed Znachor ("The Witch Doctor"); testimony available; photo available
Jan Wojtovitcz, captain??Non-Jew
Franciszek Wolinski, captain Przypisowka, 1918 Died in 1947 in PolandNon-Jew
Wacek Wymolski??Non-Jew
Dudek from OtwockOtwock (Warsaw)Murdered in 1944
Roman the LieutenantDonetsk??Jewish fighter in Janowski unit


HRUBIESZOW PARTISANS
Hrubieszow Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Szloma BodenChelm, Nov. 11, 1918Murdered before 1945Photo available
Julek BrandHrubieszow, 1906Murdered before 1945Photo available
Szloma BrandHrubieszow, July 1911IsraelPhoto available; Fought with the partisans in Vilna
Jurek CukierWarsaw, Dec. 23, 1923Israelaka Joel Cuker; photo available
Bertold DobrinGermany, 1897Murdered Nov. 5, 1943 at Poniatowa
Saul DobuchnaWarsaw, 1923Murdered September 1942Photo available
Yitzhak Dobuchno Warsaw Murdered
Dawid EhrlichGrabowiec?Murdered
Simcha Estik (Astyk)Grabowiec?Murdered
Abraham FInkelsteinWarsaw, 1920 Murdered
Kalman FirsztHrubieszowKilled Dec. 7 1943 in Wolyn
Hawa Follman Bialystok, Nov. 20, 1919Died on May 26, 1996 in IsraelBecame Chaika Grossman; photos available
Asher FrenkelWarsaw, 1901Murdered in 1942 in HrubieszowPhoto available
Aron FrumerHrubieszow, 1920Murdered May 5, 1942 in Hrubieszow
Gedalia Gershuni or GerszunBialystok, 1914Murdered August 1942
Chaim Haus (Hausz)Warsaw, 1920Murdered in 1944 at MajdanekPhoto available
Jakub Jankiel KacMogielnica, 1917Murdered
Israel KampnerKalisz, 1923Murdered near Hrubieszow
Franka KirszenbojmHrubieszowMurdered in 1942
Felek LanglebenWarsawMurdered near ZamoscPhoto available
Dina LewinLodz, 1923Murdered near Hrubieszow
Ida Malkin ||| ?Murdered in 1943-1946
Moshe Micflikier (Mitzflicker)Chelm, April 1, 1894Died in Israel in 1964Photo available
Yochanan MorgenszternZamosc, 1905Murdered May 6, 1943Photos available
Yitzhak NozicWarsaw, 1920Murdered September 1942Photo available
Abraham PinkelsztejnWarsaw, 1920Murdered near Hrubieszow
Frumka Plotnicka ~1914Murdered on Aug. 3, 1943 in BedzinPhoto available
Moniek Ringwirc (Rajngewirc)Radomsk, 1916Murdered in 1942 in HrubieszowPhoto available; his girlfriend was Pesia Furmanowicz
Zindel Reiver (Rajver) SzczebrzeszynMurderedaka Zenik; Fought near Izbica
Henryk Jechiel Rozen?Murdered near Hrubieszow
Malka RubGrabowiec?Murdered
Moshe Rubinczyk (Rubinchyk)Belarus, 1914Murdered Sept. 3, 1942Photo available
Ruth SzklarWarsaw, ~1923Murdered near HrubieszowPhoto available
Moshe Szpaszyk (Shpashek)WarsawMurdered near HrubieszowPhoto available
Chana SzyslerGrabowiec?Murdered
Szyfra SzyslerGrabowiec?Murdered
Moses Michael TemchinPinsk, 1909Died in 1990 in New YorkFought in the area of Hrubieszow; see "Armia Ludowa" above
(unknown) Wajcer/Wicer/WycerHrubieszow?Murdered in route to base in Werbkowice
Chaim Eliezer WarmanKurow, 1915Murdered in 1943-1946Photo available
Israel ZelcerZdolbunov, 1913Executed in September, 1942


Ben Kamm, partisan responsible for helping Jews escape from the Janow Lubelski Ghetto.

JANOW LUBELSKI / KRASNIK PARTISANS
Janow / Krasnik Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Moshe Baron BychawaIsraelParticipated in a group near Bychawa;
Article on page 302 of the Bychawa Yizkor Book
Berish or Bolek Berman??Fought with the Bron partisans
Yaakov Bezman Magnuszew, 1932?Wladimirov Brigade; fought near Poniatowa
Hillel Borenstein Annopol, 1921Ontario, CanadaFought with the Bron partisans
Manes Brafman KrasnikIsraelFought with the Bron partisans
Ester Brand Krasnik areaBrazilBecame Esther Sztamfater; family camp, Bron group
Abraham "Adolf" Bron Krasnik, 1902Died in 1983 in BrazilPhoto available; Leader of the Bron partisans
Hersz Brener Krasnik, 1932?.
Lejba Brener Krasnik, 1926?aka Leon Brener; fought with Eliezar Wurman's group
Hersz Brones (Bronze) Krasnik 1908IsraelPhoto available; Fought with the Bron partisans
Mordko Marian
Grynbaum Burstein
Blinow, 1922Died in 2004 in BrazilPhoto available; Escaped from Janiszow Labor Camp;
Fought with the Bron partisans
(unknown) Ciencow?Russia?Non-Jew; Led a group of Russian partisans near Krasnik
Moshe Erlich***BychawaKfar Masaryk, Haifa, IsraelParticipated in a group near Bychawa
Leon Feldhendler* Zolkiewka, 1910Murdered in 1945 in LublinPhoto available
Eli Fiszman 1928New YorkChanged his name to Ely Fishman (rabbi);
fought with the Bron partisans
Yaakov Farber Krasnik, 1901?IsraelFought with the Bron partisans
Edward Forst or Forest ?Murdered 1943-1944?Leader of the Berek Joselewicz partisans
Yaacov Freitag (Frajtak) ?Murdered 1943-1944Let a group of fighters from Rzeczyca
Josef Fuks Warsaw, 1923Died in 2012 in New YorkChanged his name to Joseph Fox; fought near Zdzilowice
Chaim Hirszman Janow Lubelski, Oct. 24, 1912Murdered in 1945Belzec escapee
Ben Kamm Warsaw, March 21, 1921Died Nov. 8, 2010Helped free 600 people from the Janow Lubelski ghetto
(unknown) Karnischauer Czechoslovakia?Non-Jew
Ivan Kasian Russia??.
Grzegorz Korczynski, commander 1915Died in 1971 in AlgeriaNon-Jew and Anti-Semite
Yehoshua Kleinman (Klajman) ?MurderedFought with the Bron partisans
Zeev Korngold Magnuszew, 1911Murdered Nov. 3, 1943 at PoniatowaJewish Military Union (ZZW)
P. Kristal ?IsraelFought with the Bron partisans
Reuven Pintele ?Murdered 1943-1944.
Yehoshua Pintele ??Rescued prisoners from the Janiszow labor camp
(unknown) Prohor or Prochors Russia?Non-Jew who fought with Adolf Bron's group
Henoch Prozanski Janow Lubelski, 1923Died in 1986 in IsraelPhoto available
Mayer Schnabel Czechoslovakia, 1903Likely murdered.
Leon Schor Mielec, 1934New YorkTestimony available; fought with the Bron partisans
Josef Shapiro Krasnik areaMurdered 1943-1944Communist who fought with the Kosciuszko partisans
(unknown) Silberman Czechloslovakia?.
Mordechai Sternblitz (Sternblic) Zamosc??Participated in a group near Bychawa
Szymek Szymiel*Chelm, 1924Died in 1997 in WarsawChanged his name to Leon Cymel; testimony available;
photo available; fought with Bron's group
Lejzor Wurman Kurow, 1915Murdered July, 1944Led a partisan group in the Rzecice forests
Shlomo Zysmelech (Zysmilch) Tarnogrod IsraelFought with the Bron partisans
Adek from PotokPotokMurdered in 1945Fought with Adolf Braun's group

A group of partisans numbering around 30 Jews was organized by Yitzchak Kleinman in the location
Stara Wies, halfway between Radzyn Podaslki and Kock. Most of the members were escapees from the
Radzyn Podlaskie ghetto. In February and March of 1943, this group carried out successful combat
against the Germans on the Radzyn-Kock road and also in Stara Wies. The group was eliminated in
spring 1943. A separate group, likely very small (perhaps a dozen people), was organized by the
Pantshek brothers, whose surname was spelled various ways including Paczek and Ponczek. The
group was eliminated by Polish Armia Krajowa forces in November, 1943 per Shmuel Krakowski.

RADZYN PODLASKI PARTISANS
Radzyn Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Moshe KaszmakerRadzyn PodlaskiMurdered
Yitzchak KlejnmanRadzyn PodlaskiMurdered summer, 1943
Liebl Lev Radzyn Podlaski, 1912Murdered in 1944
Chaim NisenboimRadzyn PodlaskiMurdered
Avremele Pontsak (Pontshak)Radzyn PodlaskiMurdered in Nov., 1943
Berel Pontsak (Ponczak)Radzyn PodlaskiMurdered in Nov., 1943
Gershon Henich Pontsak (Pintshak)Radzyn PodlaskiMurdered at Oswiecim or Czemierniki
Lejb Pontsak (Ponczak)Radzyn PodlaskiMurdered in Nov., 1943
Lejzor Pontsak (Paczek)Radzyn PodlaskiMurdered in 1942
Yaakov Pontsak (Ponczak)Radzyn PodlaskiDied in Israel
Moshe Shtestshinaz (sp?)Radzyn PodlaskiMurdered
Unknown TunkelszwarczRadzyn PodlaskiMurdered in Nov., 1943



Partisans who previously escaped from Sobibor. Includes Shmuel Szmajzner (back, 2nd from left), Abram Kohn
(2nd row, far right), Kalman Wewryk (2nd row, second from right) and others not identified.

MISCELLANEOUS PARTISANS
Miscellaneous Lublin Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Ludka Arbetsman |||?Died 1943-1946 in Lublin
Eliezer BartHrubieszow, 1915USAFought in Vilna, outside of Lublin district
Josef Cukierman*Kurow, May 26, 1930Died in 1963 in New JerseyPhotos available
Jan KarskiLodz, 1914 Died in 2000 in PolandNon-Jew; witnessed Izbica to testify to Shoah atrocities
Hersch KlajnmannLublin, ~1924Murdered circa 1942Photo available
Jakow Klaper (Klapper)Lublin, 1916Murdered?
Moshe Merensztajn (Merenstein)*Gorzkow, 1899Died in 1985 in Queens, New York
Szmul ZygielbojmBorowica, 1895Committed suicide in May, 1943Photos available
Cwi Hersz ZilberbergLublinIsrael?Fought near Trawniki

Symbol Guide (Legend)
* Escapee from the Sobibor Death Camp.
||| Escapee from the Warsaw Ghetto.
*** Escapee from Lipowa Street Camp, Lublin.
(()) Escapee from Adampol Labor Camp near Wlodawa.
@ Grynszpan group but combined with the Wlodawans (Lichtenberg group).
^ Note: "Patzan" was a nickname signifying a small person.


MAPS OF PARTISANS -- LUBLIN DISTRICT


Jegier, Gruber, and Blaichman groups -- main areas of movement.


Grynszpan Lichtenberg, and Knopfmacher groups -- main areas of movement.

PARCZEW AND WLODAWA PARTISANS







Dudkin Rubenstein (on the left), Yechiel Grynszpan (on the right), commander of this partisan unit;
Chaim Feferkorn (kneeling on the left) and Leon Lyowa Zitzman (kneeling on the right).



Unit commander Chil Grynspan, left, with Josef Rolnik (center) and Dudkin Rubinstein.








Leon Sittzmann (Zitzman), Joe Holm, and Josef Rolnik.


Zev Litwak, left; Shenka from Wlodawa, right.


From left: Moshe Peshalis, Motel Barbanel, his cousins Simcha Barbanel and Chanina Barbanel (skip the head
between them). Unknown, the uncle Gedalia "Geniek" Barbanel, unknown, and unknown.


Partisan Avigdor (Wigdor) Shporer in Lublin, 1944 (left side).


Nachum Knopfmacher, left, and Michael Knopfmacher (Michael Kaftori), right.


Partisans Zeev Litwack (Velvale the Patzan) and Chil Grynszpan, immigration photos to Brazil.









Lichtenberg group partisans.


ABRAHAM BRON'S GROUP


Partisans in the Lublin district, unidentified location. Left: Partisan leader Abraham Bron; others unidentified.


Rifka Bursztyn and Hava Bursztyn are on the left side. Others are not identified.


Back row, left to right: Abraham Bron, unknown; Mordko Grynbaum; Shlomo Zismelech; Yaakov "Jacob" Bursztyn; David (last name
unknown); Josef Graisman. Lower row: Rivka Bursztyn next to husband Mordko Bursztyn; unknown; Hava Bursztyn (wife of Yaakov).


Left to right, first row (ground): Haika Grymbaum, Hava Burstein, unknown, Mischa Stahlhammer. Others not identified.


Partisan leader Abraham Bron, after immigration to Brazil.


Two fighters from the Polish underground "Armia Ludowa" in the Krasnik area. Photographed in 1944.


A group of fighters from the Polish underground "Armia Ludowa" in the Krasnik area, 1944.

MARKUSZOW GROUP




Left to right: Simon Rabines, Shmuel Emil Jegier, Frank Bleichman, Stefan Sam Finkel. In Markuszow.


Unidentified fighters in Markuszow between 1943 and 1946. Seem to be affiliated with the Armia Ludowa.

ALEXANDER SKOTNICKI'S AL GROUP


General Zemsta (aka Snotnicki), the Jewish commander of the Armia Ludowa forces.


The People's Army (Armia Ludowa, known as Gwardia Ludowa or "The People's Guard") was one of the two main military
organizations of the Polish underground. Jewish partisan Dr. Temczyn is in this photo with General Michal "Rola" Zymierski (top,
center) of the Armia Ludowa. Top, from left: Jan Czechowicz, Stanislaw Kotek-Agroszewski, Zymierski, Grab Widerkowski,
Stanislaw Szot. Bottom, from left Waclaw Czyzewski, Cien, Dr. Michael Temczyn. Photo from 1944 in Parczew.

RUSSIAN PARTISANS


A mixed unit that included 7 Jewish partisans. Photo taken in November, 1943 in Drahichyn, Belarus.The photo includes
members of the Shish branch of the Molotov Brigade (Otriad Regiment). The Jews in the brigade were: Leon Nemzer, 2nd row, left
side kneeling and Siomka, next to him in the leather jacket; as well as, 3rd row, 5th from the left moving to the right: Chaim Ajzen,
Mechel Knopfmacher, Sashka Ganz, Motel Rabinowich, and Sirotchka (nickname, full name not known).


Mischa Stahlhammer, a Jewish fighter from Krasnik who later went to Sweden.


MISCELLANEOUS GROUPS

Lipowa 7 escapees:


Kurow group:


Unknown group:


Unknown group:


Kunitsky group:

Mordechai Szlajcher from Bilgoraj area.

PARTISANS TODAY


Partisans Isadore Farbstein, Rostka Holm, and Frank Blaichman.





ADDITIONAL SOURCES:

BOOKS:

- Azoy iz es geven (The Way It Was, Yiddish), Buenos Aires, 1948 by Jonas Turkow.
- Chaim Ajzen Remembers by Henry Steel
- I Chose Life by Samuel Gruber
- Codename Barber: The Story of Partisan Mischa Stahlhammer by Semmy Stahlhammer
- Escape from Sobibor by Richard Raschke
- Fighting Back: A Memoir of Jewish Resistance in WWII by Harold Werner
- From the Ashes of Sobibor: A Story of Survival by Thomas Toivi Blatt
- Fugitives of the Forest: Heroic Stories of Resistance & Survival in WWII by Gerald Levine
- Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past by Martin Gilbert
- Hurbn un gvure fun shtetl Markuszow (Destruction and Heroism, Town of Markuszow. Yiddish. Tel Aviv, 1955.
- Imferno em Sobibor/Portuguese (Hell in Sobibor) by Stanislaw Szmajzner
- Martyrdom and Revolt. Documents and Testimonies by Miriam Novitch, New York, 1980.
.. Includes several testimonies from Sobibor uprising survivors who fought as partisans.
- Pogaduszki: The memoirs of Stanislaw Sierpinski. Haifa, 2005. In Polish.
- Promise at Sobibor: A Jewish Boy's Story of Revolt by Fiszel Bialowitz
- Rather Die Fighting: A Memoir of WWII by Frank Blaichman
- Reluctant Soldier: A Jewish Partisan's Story by Jakob Friedman
- The Reminiscences of Dov Berezinby Mikolai Berezin
- Sobibor: Martyrdom and Revolt by Miriam Novitch. Holocaust Library, 1980.
- To Sobibor and Back: An Eyewitness Account by Kalman Wewryk
- Spotkanie z ziemia by Leon Bielski. Ksiazka i Wiedza. Warsaw, 1965.
- Story of a Secret State: My Report to the World by Jan Karski
- Szmul Zygielbojm: Profile of Partisan Hero by Ronald Cohn and Jesse Russel
- The Witch Doctor: Memoirs of a Partisan by Dr. Michael Temchin
- The Undefeated by Shiye Goldberg
- War of the Doomed: Jewish Armed Resistance in Poland, 1942-1944 by Shmuel Krakowski

ARTICLES:

- About Jewish Partisan Frank Blaichman
- Armies of the Young: Child Soldiers in War and Terrorism; pps. 48-51 discuss partisan children in
.. the Lublin Forests
- Fate of Some of the Sobibor Survivors (see also: Sobibor Remembrance Project)
- From a Prisoner's Camp to a Partisan Troop by Alufi and Barkeli in "Aishishuk", pages 77-78.
.. Profile of partisan Mordechai Glebocki, aka Shneor Glembotzky.
- Iberlebungen fun a Veloner Krigsgefangenen in Sefer Zikaron le-Kehillat Wielun.
.. Tel Aviv, 1971, pp. 380-384. Testimony of Aryeh Lejb Helfgot.
- Jewish Revolts and Uprisings in the Lublin District
- Long Valley Man's Memoir Tells Heroic Life of Partisan
- "The Polish Underground and the Jews: A Reassessment of Home Army Commander Tadeusz Bor-
.. Komorowski's Order 116 Against Banditry" by John Lowell Armstrong. Cites the testimony of Krasnik
.. partisan Hersz Broner. The Slavonic and East European Review 72, no. 2 (April 1994): 273.
- Rescue of Jews from the Wlodawa Ghetto
- Rise and Fall of Wlodawa - from the Yizkor Book
- Russian Jews and the Sobibor Escape
- Sobibor Survivors' Testimonies (see also: Sobibor Remembrance Project)
- Understanding the Polish Obsession with Salomon Morel

FILMS:

- Belzec Survivor Braha Rauffmann
- Escape from Sobibor
- Poland, Personally: Featuring Michael Kaftori, Wlodawa Partisan
- Profile of survivors Blaichman and Gruber
- Shmuel Mietek Gruber Video Testimony
- Tribute Video to Cesia and Frank Blaichman & Rose and Joe Holm

OTHER LINKS:

- Definitions of Important Terms Related to Jewish Partisans
- Lasting Memory Foundation: Lublin District Commemorations


HOT LINKS

Chelm.freeyellow.com Index

E-mail: GenealogyKid20@aol.com


***