ALSO ON THIS SITE: Memorials to victims in:|
[Lublin District, Poland] * [Chelm - Hrubieszow Death March]
[Dubno, Ukraine] * [Belzec Death Camp]
[Sobibor Death Camp] * [Majdanek Concentration Camp]
Nazi-sponsored persecution and mass murder fueled resistance to the Germans in the Third Reich itself and throughout occupied Europe. Although Jews were the Nazis' primary victims, they too resisted Nazi oppression in a variety of ways, both collectively and as individuals. The Jewish partisans listed below are an inspiration. They valiantly fought and died for freedom against the Nazi murderers.
Amcha ("your people") was the "code" that the Maccabees had used when they fought the Syrians in the 2nd Century BCE. Jewish partisans in the forests of Lublin used this same password to identify other Jews in the area. In fighting as partisans, their number one goal was to save Jewish lives. Women with small children and the elderly found refuge because of the men and women listed below. Several of the "family camps" grew to hundreds of people, most especially the camp called Tabor operated by Grynszpan's 2nd Holod Battalion and the camp called Ohozhe operated by the Lichtenberg group.
Both the Narodowe Sily Zbrojne (NSZ), which had around 75,000 Polish fighters, and the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa), which had around 270,000 fighters, consisted of many vicious anti-Semites. The groups were very active in the Lublin district. Therefore not only did the partisan groups have to withstand the Nazis and anti-Jewish Polish fighters from these two armed groups, but also scores of anti-Semitic Polish farmers intent on murdering Jews. Despite these obstacles, two cases of Jewish partisans rescuing Poles is documented in Marek Jan Chodakiewicz's book "Zydzi i Polacy 1918-1955" (Jews and Poles 1918-1955). In February of 1944, Abram Braun saved his friends, Stanislaw Saganowski ("Dab") and his son Jerzy Saganowski ("Brzoza") of Aleksandrowka from the NKVD and the UB. They were active members of the NSZ, and thus had to go into hiding after the arrival of the Red Army. Braun arranged for immunity for the Saganowskis from the local secret police and protected them afterward. Braun helped them move to his house in Krasnik. Subsequently, Saganowski, Sr. went into a black market business with his Jewish friend. Saganowski, Jr. enrolled at a high school in Krasnik. Both maintained personal contacts with their NSZ colleagues but remained passive in the anti-Communist struggle. In a separate incident in the spring of 1945, Aleksander Mieczyslaw Skotnicki saved a man, Pawel Golombek, from the Communist secret service (UB). Golombek was a Polish policeman who was secretly in the Underground.
Two of the group leaders, Gruber and Grynszpan, had both previously been corporals in the Polish Army. Jews had been required to serve their country -- even as the borders changed -- for centuries. This previous military training was crucial to their success as unit leaders. The conditions the partisans had to overcome are monumental by any standard. There was not just the lack of food, the constant starvation, and the need to find food by any means possible. Another obstacle was dealing with the fact that most of their family members had previously been murdered and overcoming the feeling that they were now truly alone in the world. There was also the problem of how to get weapons, how to stay warm in the winters, and how to avoid detection by Polish and German soldiers. Complicating this last matter was the fact that a majority of Poles and Ukrainians were eager to report Jews to the Nazi murderers.
Many of our Jewish partisans overcame these tremendous difficulties, but others were not as fortunate. We fondly remember the Jewish partisans of the Lublin distrct as heroes, today and forever.
Groups form Northwest of Lublin: In Markuszow and Kamionka in 1942, groups of young Jews who escaped from ghettos or otherwise avoided capture managed to acquire weapons and food. When the Jewish community of Markuszow was rounded up, some 700 Jews fled. The four separate Jewish partisan groups -- one led by Mordechai Kirshenboim, a second led by brothers Yerukham and Yaakov Gotheilf, a third called the Cossacks, and a fourth group from Kamionka led by Frank Blaichman -- set up camps in the Wola forests. The first three groups were mostly captured or killed in combat. There were two specific incidents the groups faced after many years of fighting and surviving. Near Markuszow was a village called Pryszczowa Gora, built on a peaty area with 350 families in the village. The residents, all peasants, were poor. Markuszow Jews built caves and camouflaged themselves at this locale. The shochet went out one day and was spotted by the military police after a local villager complained. The Germans were led to the entrance of the cavesite. The cave entrances were stuffed with straw and set on fire. All of the Jews were dead, except one little girl. She was taken in by the villagers and passed from house to house. The second incident concerned a separate group of Markuszow fighters, the Emilia Plater group led by Jegier. On Feb. 4, 1944, there were three unknown peasants at a barn owned by a farmer the partisans knew in Pryszczowa Gora. The threesome had reported the Jews to the Germans, and by the time the partisans realized this they were ambushed. The two survivors of this incident were Janek (also called Yosel), unknown surname, and Sziye Goldberg. They were both severely wounded.
Frank Blaichman's group was more successful because they were better armed. The group eventually rose to 75 fighters and merged with a group led by Shmuel "Mietek" Gruber in the summer of 1943. The combined group total was around 90 fighters. Blaichman's group was very successful in acquiring weapons, which several of the other Jewish partisan groups had great difficulty achieving. At just age 16 when the war started, Frank Blaichman became an unlikely leader and hero. He had no military background or training, but assumed the role of leader of the group for the purpose of avenging the blood of his murdered family members.
All Jewish members of the Polish Army were sent to the Lipowa 7 Labor Camp in Lublin. Samuel Gruber and other Lipowa 7 inmates were forced to build the Majdanek Concentration Camp as part of their slave labor detail. Gruber had been injured in a battle in the campaign against the Nazis, so he was eventually taken out of slave labor. He remained at the Lipowa camp, but was assigned to work in an office of a hospital that distributed uniforms, rifles, and pistols to German soldiers coming from the front. He was able to steal weapons, which he funneled to the anti-German Polish underground.
In October of 1942, Gruber and another prisoner named Kaganowicz led a group of around 25 men into the Kozlow woods north of Lublin. Gruber had difficulty finding weapons after escaping from Lipowa 7. His group was small and largely unarmed, but had local connections with friendly farmers. Their group placed vulnerable, sick, or elderly Jews with farmers they could trust to avoid attracting attention.
The Blaichman and Gruber groups merged in summer, 1943, and together they hunated down Nazis and any Poles who collaborated with them. They picked off German patrols and stole German weapons. They initially fought in the area west of the Wieprz River in the Janowski (Yanov) forest west of Lublin. The combined forces acquired rifles, pistols, and machine guns as well as food and clothing obtained from various sources, including Nazis, Polish villagers, and an occasional political ally. This combined group, "The Lubartow Group", reached Chil Grynszpan's groups in January of 1944 and merged with them. The combined groups had around 400 fighters and worked closely with the Armia Ludowa.
Groups form Northeast of Lublin: Yechiel Grynszpan was part of a horse-trading family and thus became familiar with the wagon routes and swamps in the forests near where he grew up prior to the war. His family mostly traded with non-Jews, and therefore he also knew which Polish farmers could be trusted. Grynszpan and his group set up a camp in the woods called Tabor, where the elderly, children, and those too weak to fight could still survive. The camp was protected by the Jewish partisan unit and surrounded by dense forests. The people in the Tabor camp were mostly from local villages such as Kodeniec, Pachole, Zahajki, and Krzywowierzby. The three village elders who oversaw the Tabor camp were Abram from Zaliscze (Abram Cholomski), Yankel from Holowno, and Nuchem from Krasnowka. Jews set up a makeshift synagogue in the forests and Grynszpan worked to motivate the partisans, saying "You are born once - you only die once". Grynszpan's group worked with Fioder's brigade, Lichtenberg's group, and later the Gruber-Blaichman-Jegier group from the Pulawy area. They later formed a tight bond with the Armia Ludowa, who recognized Grynszpan's group was the most organized Jewish resistance in all of eastern Poland. It consisted of Jews native to Parczew and Sosnowica as well as a group of POWs who had escaped from the camp in Biala Podlaska.
Sadly, in the fall of 1943, the Nazis invaded the campsite and 75 of the around 200 of the Jews living in it were murdered. In the fall of 1943, more than a dozen of the Sobibor uprising escapees found Grynszpan's group -- each sick, starved, and frozen. They included: Yehuda "Atleta" Lerner, Abraham Margules, Hella Fellenbaum, Ajzik Rotenberg, Itzhak Lichtman, a Russian Jew with a pistol (Taborinski), Ada Fischer, Kitty Gokkes, and Ursula Stern. Prior to finding the Grynszpan group, Sobibor survivors Lerner, Taborinski, and Moshe Goldfarb were with a group of six other Sobibor survivors who were lured into a group of around 20 Polish fighters led by two brothers called Piatek. Without warning, these Polish fighters attacked the Jewish Sobibor survivors near Hola, and six were murdered, including one woman. Three lived to tell the story. They left this group and continued to search for allies, and fortunately met the Grynszpan partisans.
The Lubartow group of Gruber and Blaichman eventually joined Chil's battalion. The combined units were tough, experienced, and disciplined by the fall of 1943. There were 150 people in the combined unit, including 20 armed women who fought alongside the men. The forces cut phone poles between Lublin and Wlodawa, attacked police headquarters and government posts in Kaplonosy and Parczew, blew up at least four army troop trains, and hijacked German supply trucks on the highways. They also picked off Germans whenever it was possible to do so.
In October of 1942, a separate group of around a dozen partisans formed outside of Adampol, Poland. The group gained members one by one, until it reached around 40 fighters. Freedom was a new concept for this group, as most had been imprisoned in the Wlodawa or Adampol ghettos and had found a way to escape. This group was the beginnings of the Lichtenberg group. Another group of Jews mostly from the Wlodawa area formed inside of the labor camp and eventually escaped. This group, led by Nahum Knopfmacher, eventually merged with Lichtenberg's group, but the two leaders had different ideas about the right actions to take in the short term. Lichtenberg was more focused on revenge and Knopfmacher was more focused on freeing Jews from Adampol Labor Camp.
Wlodawa is located east of the Bug River, near Sobibor. The Polish farmer Papinski was a messenger between the Lichtenberg group and local populations. In May, 1943 the Wlodawa Ghetto was liquidated. Between the partisan groups in the area, there were at least four rescue missions into the Wlodawa Ghetto to smuggle Jews out of it, and over 100 Jews were taken out of the ghetto or the nearby Adampol Labor Camp.
Lichtenberg's group joined the Chil Grynszpan group, but Lichtenberg's leadership style also clashed with the Grynszpan partisans. Around 30 fighters from the Lichtenberg group left the Grynszpan group and joined a Russian partisan detachment called Woroshilow led by Kolka Meluch. Subsequently, they crossed the Bug River to continue their struggle for freedom in the Soviet partisan movement. While there, unit leaders Moshe Lichtenberg, Motel Rosenberg and Chaim Fiszman were shot by Kolka in a dispute over machine guns. After losing these key men, Leon Nemzer, who had served in the Polish Army, took over as the group's leader. At its height, the group consisted of around 90 men and 10 women. The ammunition and food supplies of the Lichtenberg group were consistently very sparse. Only around 30 of its fighters were armed. The local Poles in the area around Wlodawa were very hostile to the Jewish partisans. In April of 1944, most of the Lichtenberg partisans joined the Red Army.
Partisan Zev Velvele Litwack recalls:
"On December 16, 1942 Chil led us to the village Ostrowa, where we started a heavy fight with the Hitlerists and after some hours we succeeded in conquering the position. German officers fell in our hands and 12 Polish policemen were shot. We captured many arms, uniforms, and other things. We burned down their housings and the town hall. The mayor, who had cooperated with the Germans, was shot. This was the first act of revenge for the Jewish bloodshed." But there was a price to pay: shortly after the victory, the Germans surrounded the partisans. The partisans were bombed for three days with planes and tanks. According to Litwack, "When they were about 40 meters from our range of sight came the order: 'Fire!' And we opened fire from all sides, so that the Germans did not know from where it came and they were standing in an open cornfield on their way towards us. In this battle we lost three partisans, two Russians and one Jew, Simcha Levinson from Sosnowica. Tens of Germans were killed. After fighting for about five hours the Germans retreated."
One daring, but ultimately unsuccessful, action devised by the Grynszpan unit was an attempt to liberate 770 Jewish prisoners from the Krasnik Labor Camp (Skret). Liaison was established with the Jews inside the camp, who were supplied with 30 revolvers and a number of hand grenades. A plan for concerted action was carefully elaborated; the revolt inside the camp was to flare up simultaneously with the partisan
attack from the outside. An informer revealed the plans to the Nazis. Several days before the scheduled revolt was to take place, the Nazis seized the armed rebels inside the camp, killed the bulk of them, and transferred others to the nearby Budzyn.
1942 was a year with great snowfalls, storms and frosts. Winter was at its peak. The situation for the partisans was not good; most were naked, barefoot, and hungry. They attacked villages taking weapons and cattle by force, but lost Jewish fighters in each attack. Continues Litwack: "On January 11, we were surrounded in the forest of Parzew by a big German unit. But our Russian commander (Fiodor Kovalev) tricked them and we pushed back their attack. On February 26, 1943 at 11am, a group of 10 people with the commander Zemsta (Alexander Skotnicki, a Jew from the Armia Ludowa) were surrounded by 400 Germans. My comrades were sleeping in the hut of the forest guard and only I, wearing a German uniform, kept guard. The Germans approached, shouting: 'Comrade (friend)!' I threw myself down on the ground and started shooting at them. The Germans answered with heavy fire from machine guns. I detained them until the group left the hut and I succeeded in withdrawing to the other side. Our fighters, among them Zipora Koren (a teenager of around 15) opened fire and succeeded in passing and leaving the German encirclement.
In March 1943, the first planes with arms from the Soviet Union arrived. At the same time we separated from Russian partisans and formed a Jewish division under the leadership of Chil. We bombed trains near the village of Sarki, not far from Sobibor; we burned down a glass-works factory in Dubeczno. In Wyryki, we burnt the guardhouse, in Kaplonosy we attacked the German army and killed 26 Germans, and in Sosnowica we attacked a garrison and killed 120 Germans. Additionally, our forces destroyed the Bridge near to Sawin, where the railways passed on which the trains with German soldiers to the front were transported. One night we invaded in Parczew, burned the town hall and shot the guard. A week did not pass without our having removed from the rails a train with soldiers.
At the same time we stopped sleeping in the forest but slept instead in the villages that we had gained control of and where we had sympathetic non-Jews. The government of all councils of the whole district of Wlodowa went over to our side. Then Chil Grynszpan organized the division under the command of the Armia Ludowa, left-wing Poles. Chil was promoted high commander.
In April, 1943 we were heavily attacked in the forest of Kaplonosy. In this battle we lost 70 Jewish fighters. Women and children rescued from the ghetto Wlodowa were also killed. It became known to us that in Adampol there were Jews from Wlodowa and Sosnowica. Nisan Cyn agreed to join me, but he was the only one. In the evening we both went to a farmer in Kaplonosy whom we knew very well. We promised him a good pig if he would bring us to the camp. He led us there and remained half a kilometer away of the camp and we continued. Nisan stood at the gate and I in German-uniform entered the camp. I took two Jews with me and left.
The winter months were slowly creeping until the summer of 1943 arrived. We were informed that Jews were still living in the ghetto. I learned that from my whole family which was killed in Sobibor, only father survived. I sent a farmer from the village Krasnowka to bring my father to the forest. The farmer returned without my father but with a letter from him in which it was written: 'My son, I don't have anything to live for and it is not worthwhile for me to come to the forest. G-d shall help you and guard you from all dangers. Revenge all, for the innocent Jewish blood which was shed'. On May 2, 1943 at night, Wlodowa was encircled by S.S.-men and Ukrainians driving out Jews from their hiding places. Tens of men, women, and children were shot in the street. My father too was shot on Wyryki street. This was the last action to dispose of Jews in the Wlodowa ghetto, which was one of the last remaining ghettos in the entire region.
One night I invaded in the first barrack of the camp Adampol. The Jews were already sleeping and I woke them taking along with me more than 30 people, ordering them to pass the fence while I jumped after them. All this was accomplished so silently that nobody noticed what happened. The farmer led us to the forest of Kaplonosy, where Chil Grynszpan was waiting with his whole group. This successful experiment increased our courage and we started enlarging our visits taking out Jews from Wlodowa, Sosnowica, Kaplonosy, Wyryki, and other places. Another day we made an assembly and decided to take all the Jews from Adampol, as we had learned that the last action was going to take place. It was determined that five men with arms should enter the camp hiding the arms and organizing the Jews to be prepared to leave the camp for the forest. Yurek Cholomsky and four others were sent.
But the Nazi head of the camp, Selinger, learned about the presence of the partisans in the camp and about their intention to lead the Jews out of the camp. He phoned the Gestapo in Wlodowa and on the same day some hundreds of them enclosed the camp and drove out all the Jews to the fields and fired at them. The five partisans went the first and when they were in the fields they shouted loudly all the Jews started escaping and dispersing in all directions. The Germans opened fire killing all the Jews, except Yurek, a man from Wlodawa, and Yeshayahu from Wyryki. On this day, 600 Jews were massacred from Wlodowa and the surroundings. All were buried in a common grave next to Adampol.
In June 1943 we fought against the Germans behind the village Zahajki. Our commander was then Yechiel Grynspan, who conducted the battle with exceptional fighting spirit and strategic talent. In the same battle we lost two fighters. One was Yeshayahu Lichtenstein, the son of the Rabbi of Wlodowa. In every place we went, we were ambushed by Germans and Poles filled with hate for the Jews. We fought against them day after day. We were never able to relax because of the terrible situation we had to confront. For us, there was not much hope that we would survive this devastation. But within each of us existed a great spirit to rise up to fight." -- Velvele Litwack
By July of 1944, Chil's partisan forces -- which had formed an alliance with the Armia Ludowa -- was surrounded by German soldiers. On July 22, the Red Eighth Army passed them during the night, and the partisans from the Mietek and Grynszpan groups were behind the front line of liberated Poland. Of the roughly 4,000 Jews who had fled to the forests of Parczew, Markuszow, and Wlodawa between 1940 and 1944, only around 200 were still alive. Chil's group was one of the most successful partisan detachments in all of Europe.
Groups form Southwest of Lublin: By 1942, the last Jews of Krasnik had been deported to the Belzec Extermination Camp. Hundreds of them were able to escape into the woods before the deportation. Avraham Braun, partisan name Adolf Braun, operated in the area around Krasnik, where the Budzyn and Krasnik (Skret) Labor Camps were located. His group consisted of around 50 Jews, mostly escapees from labor camps or ghettos. All of Braun's men, with the exception of 15 of them, were gunned down by their supposed allies, led by Lieutenant Karol Herzenberger Lemichow. Additional information about resistance in the Krasnik area is available here. Abraham Braun is discussed on page 111 of "The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust" by Martin Gilbert.
Another group operating in the Krasnik area was under the leadership of the Armia Ludowa Polish fighters, specifically one Grzegorz Korczynski. Two Jews, Jan Szelubski and a man named Bleicher, survived when this Jewish partisan unit was attacked by Poles in the area surrounding Krasnik. After the war, it was determined that Korczynski had ties to the murderers of this Jewish unit and he was held fully responsible for the action. This event likely happened in 1942 and it is unclear how many Jewish partisans were murdered.
Korczynski persisted, with the blessing the AL leadership. His job was to organize additional groups in the southern part of the Lublin district. Korczynski's unit grew in size in fall, 1942 and consisted of the following sub-units: A group from Frampol that had escaped from the Ghetto; a group under Yaakov Freitag that had escaped from the village of Reczyca in Pulawy County; a group under Reuven Pintel's leadership; a group that escaped from the Majdanek Concentration Camp under the leadership of a partisan named Robert; and several non-Jewish Polish fighting groups.
Prior to joining up with Korczynski's group, Robert's Majdanek escapees carried out a successful ambush on the road near Bychawa, attacking two trucks carrying gendarmes, on October 15, 1942.
Together, the combined unit successfully attacked the Germans at the Janiszow labor camp near Annopol in November, 1942. Although all of the prisoners were free to leave the camp, they had no resources such as food and arms, and many were either caught and killed or caught and sent to Budzyn Labor Camp. Around 60 prisoners successfully escaped, but were eventually attacked and murdered by armed Polish groups.
Next, Korczynski's unit was intent on attacking the Rejowiec-Lwow rail line. But on April 4, 1943, every Jewish partisan in the unit -- with one exception, Korczynski himself -- was murdered. The circumstances surrounding the deaths have never been explained.
Groups form South of Lublin: There were also several groups that formed in the southern tier of the Lublin district. They were frequently in touch with Russian units that traveled in and out of the district and then headed back east. The Berek Joselowicz detachment under Eduard Forst had a base in Puszcza Solska, a little northwest of Jozefow in Tomaszow Lubelski County. The group formed and fought in April and May of 1943, but by August they had been dissolved -- almost surely murdered.
According to Shmuel Krakowski, in July 1942, Jews and Poles joined Rayevski's Russian unit in the south of Lublin. This unit became the largest in the area and had three submachine guns and a few rifles as well as grenades and pistols for each fighter. Rayevski decided to leave to go to Russia but the Jewish partisans stayed behind because they were familiar with the local area. The unit split up, with a majority heading east. The leftover Jewish unit, let by the Met brothers, was based near Kosznia near Frampol. A local forest watchman in Kosznia told the Germans exact details of the whereabouts of the Jewish partisans. The Jews killed this Polish collaborator. But when the Armia Krajowa found out about it, they spread anti-Jewish propaganda in the area and recruited hundreds of peasants to expel the partisans from the forests (source: Shmuel Krakowski).
On October 2, 1942, 300 Jews fled Frampol during the deportations to death camps. Some of them had acquired guns earlier and had them hidden in the forests. This group joined with Korczynski's Armia Ludowa unit and was wiped out before the end of 1943.
In the vicinity of Majdan Tyszowski, Tomaszow Lubelski county, a Jewish partisan unit commanded by a Jew from Lublin named Cadok (Zadok) established contact with the local unit of the Armia Krajowa.
After a successful joint operation, the Armia Krajowa unit invited the Jewish combatants for a feast. The Jews were first served poisoned vodka and then fired upon. No one survived (source: Unequal Victims: Poles and Jews during World War).
Groups form East of Lublin: There were more than a dozen Russian partisan groups in the Lublin district. There was significant overlap between the Russian partisan groups in the Lublin district and both the Red Army and the Armia Ludowa. One of the earliest Russian partisan group was called the Fioder group (also Pushkin's group, or Imienia Jozefa Bema). It consisted of both Jewish and non-Jewish Russian fighters, mostly escaped prisoners of war, and had around 40 unskilled fighters. It's leader was Fioder Kovalov (partisan name: Teodor Albrecht), a Soviet officer and escaped POW, and the group fought in the Makoszka forest near Parczew. The first battle of Fioder's partisans took place in November 1942. The partisans tried to beat off a German assault on a forest where a group of Parczew Jews were hiding. But the partisans were forced to retreat, and most of the Jews were killed on the spot. On Dec. 6-8, 1942, the partisans fought another battle in the Parczew forests. In spite of having considerable police and military forces, the Germans suffered significant losses while the partisans managed to successfully extract themselves out of the encirclement. On December 17, 1942 the Fioder unit captured the town of Ostrow Lubelski, killing a policeman and wounding a few others. During this battle a Polish police post was attacked, a post office, a dairy factory assisting the German war effort, and a German government office were destroyed. In the spring of 1943, Fioder's forces joined with Grynszpan's group. In the second half of 1943 and the beginning of 1944 Ostrow Lubelski was under the control of the Communist AL (Armia Ludowa). The following Jewish members were killed in action around Passover, 1943: Chuna Kot, Lejb Grinblat, Hersz Rodzinek, Yosef Waserman and Itzak Tarif. Eventually Fioder is believed to have gone into Russian territory (further east).
A Russian group led by the Edelstein brothers and Itzhak Reichman numbered around 20 fighters. The Edelstein brothers were refugees from Kalisz who went to Povorsk, Ukraine and organized an underground resistance there. The group operated out of the forests. Misha Edelstein was humble and modest, but wanted revenge for the deaths of his parents and girlfriend Raja Plus. Today in Rivne there is a memorial in memory of Misha Edelstein. He was murdered in battle after the liberation. Pasha Reichman later joined another unit and went to Israel after the war.
Another Soviet partisan group, led by Kolka, is discussed above.
A fourth Soviet partisan group, called the Janowski group, is discussed in the next section below.
The Wanda Wasilewska brigade led by Oleksiy Fedorov (Alex Fyodorov) was a large brigade of mixed Jewish and non-Jewish fighters. This group mostly fought east of the Bug River, but eventually crossed westward to take on the Germans more directly. According to partisan survivor Ben Kamm, the Fyodorov Brigade had destroyed 549 German trains by the end of 1943. Many of the groups, including the Fyodorov group, received airdrops from Russia, which included such needs as ammunition, mines, and medicines. They also received regular reports from Radio Moscow. The group's objectives were to distribute weapons to the local population and to get as many people to fight as possible.
Jews Who Fought with the Armja Ludowa: Several units also joined with the Armia Ludowa, the left-wing Polish forces fighting the Nazis. Most of the Jews involved in the AL were not political at all, but simply were fighting to sustain their livelihood. The Janowski group was one such group who fought with the Armia Ludowa. This mixed group, which had around 50 to 70 fighters in 1944, was led by Jews Leon Kasman and Leon Bielski. The Janovski group arrived to Parczew forests at the beginning of 1943, crossing west from the Bug. Their main mission was to free the Poniatowa Labor Camp near Opole Lubelski. However before that took place, in November of 1943, all of the Jews in Poniatowa were murdered. The group continued moving west and came to Mielec, Poland near the end of the war. They succeeded in attacking German units and blowing up trains. They received heavy support from Russia, as the heads of the unit had strong ties to the Russian military. They also took revenge on a Polish family that had shot the Jews they were hiding, however the location of this incident is not known.
Jewish doctor Michael Temchin was a commander in the Armia Ludowa, a leftist underground organization in Poland. His unit, which consisted of both Jews and non-Jews, was active around Krasnik, Lublin district. They planned to rescue Jews from the Krasnik Ghetto. However those inside the Ghetto were hesitant to allow the partisans to act, and in one night the entire Krasnik Ghetto was wiped out with few managing to survive or escape.
A significant number of Jews reached important positions in the Polish partisan movement, especially in Units on the left, the AL, and the Socialist Fighting Organization. The Commander of the largest Partisan Battalion in Generalgouvernement territory was the Jewish Officer, Alexander Skotnicki (Captain Zemsta), who was included among the Armia Ludowa's renowned organizers list.
General Rola-Zimierski, the commander of the Armia Ludowa, declared at a meeting of the Polish National Assembly on the 2nd of January 1946: "Jewish soldiers fought against the occupation forces with much devotion and courage. They were valiant fighters and very often great heroes" and in his letter to the Organization of Jewish Partisans (F.P.O.), the general wrote: "Among the Jews who remained alive there were thousands who went into the woods to fight with arms, and fought together with their Polish partisan comrades against the common enemy."
This is a list of the Jewish partisans who operated in the Parczew / Wlodawa areas during the Holocaust. Names are approximations based on various sources.
Many of the names are Polish proper names, so Jozef = Josef = Joe and Rojza = Rosa = Rose. Other names are Yiddish or Hebrew names, so
Yaakov = Jakub = Jacob and Chana = Hanka = Hannah. To add a name to this list, please contact us.
| Kamionka Partisans - Name||Birth data||After the war||Additional notesKAMIONKA PARTISANS|
|Frank Blaichman, leader ||Kamionka, Dec. 11, 1922||New York||Photos available; testimony available |
|Wolf Glaicher*** ||Tarnobrzeg, 1912||Murdered||Fought in Pulawy area with Armia Ludowa forces |
|Efraim Lewin||Kamionka, 1917||Died in Frankfurt, Germany||Changed his name to Efraim Lewinski |
|Usher Lewin||Kamionka||Murdered 1943-1946|| |
|Hershel Herszman||?||Murdered Jan. 31, 1943|| |
|Josef Herszman||Staroscin||Murdered in 1943||Note: Not the same Herszman who survived Sobibor |
|Jusek Herszman||1927||?|| |
|Leon Herszman||?||?|| |
|Max Jenier||?||?|| |
|Jankiel Klerer, co-leader||Kamionka?||Murdered in 1943||Discussed in: "Resistance: Teen Partisans and Resisters" by Dvorson |
|Blimka Lamberg||Kamionka||Murdered Jan. 31, 1943|| |
|Mendel Lamberg||Kamionka||?|| |
|Abram Rais||Kamionka?||Murdered Jan. 31, 1943|| |
|Ester Rais||Kamionka?||Murdered Jan. 31, 1943|| |
|Moshe Sznajderman||1917||Died December 14, 2000 in Israel|| |
|(unknown) Sztengel||?||?|| |
|Fiszel Wachholder||Kamionka?||Died March 17, 1973 in Israel|| |
|Shabse (unknown)||?||Murdered Jan. 31, 1943|| |
|Simcha (unknown)||?||?|| |
|Emilia Plater Partisans - Name||Birth data||After the war||Additional notesEMILIA PLATER GROUP|
|(unknown) Cygan (Cigan)||?||Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora|| |
|Wladek Edelsztejn (Edelstein)||?||Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora|| |
|Dawid Etinger||Markuszow||Murdered in 1943|| ||Adam Fiszbein||Markuszow?, 1916||Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora||
|Josef Fiszbein||Markuszow?, 1923||Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora|| |
|Bronislawa Garbarz (Garbacz)||Komarowka Podlaska||Israel?|| |
|Szyja Goldberg ||Lublin, 1900||Died in Israel||Testimony available |
|Chil Gothelf||Markuszow, ~1915 ||Australia|| |
|Ita Gothelf||Markuszow, 1919||?|| |
|Yaakov Gotthelf (Gothelf)||Markuszow, 1919?||Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora|| |
|Yerucham Gotthelf (Gothelf)||Markuszow||Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora|| |
|Josef Iberklejd (Iberkleid) |||||Garbow||Murdered 1942-1945|| |
| Emil Shmuel Jegier (Jaeger)***, commander||1914||Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora|| |
|Mordechai Kerschenbaum (Kerszenbaum) ||Markuszow||Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora||Photo available |
|Marcin Kirszenblat||1923||Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora|| |
|Mietek Kirszenblat||1911||Australia|| |
|Martin Kirszenbojm||Markuszow||Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora||Photos available |
|Szmuel Laks||Markuszow||Died January 27, 1988 in Israel|| |
|Wladek "Wolf" Laks||Markuszow||Murdered in 1943|| |
|Chaja Loterstein||Markuszow?||?|| |
|Michael Loterstein||Markuszow, 1924||?||Photo available |
|Szymon Malinowski||Lomza?||?||Fought near Trawniki |
|Jusiek Jerzy Marcinek||?||France|| |
|(unknown) Mikoi||Russia||Murdered|| |
|Berl Mitelberg||Lublin?||Murdered 1944-1946||Photo available; Escaped from Majdanek Concentration Camp |
|Szlomo Morel||Garbow, 1919||Died in 2007 in Israel||Falsely accused of war crimes by Polish gov't. |
|Yitzchak Morel||Garbow||Murdered in 1943|| |
|Moshe Pelz (Marcin Pelc)||Markuszow, 1917||?||Previously in the Polish army |
|Simon Rabiner||Markuszow||Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora||Photos available |
|Wladek Zeev Rak |||||Warsaw, June 1, 1923||?||aka Moshe Rok; Photo available |
|Jan Ryk||Markuszow/Kurow, Feb. 11, 1917||?|| |
|Isser Israel Rosenberg, commander||1919||Killed by accident in 1943|| |
|Bella Rubinstein||Markuszow?||?|| |
|Blimka Rubinstein||Markuszow?||?||Photo available |
|Dawid Rubinstein||Markuszow?||?|| |
|Sever Shmuel Rubinstein ||Markuszow?||New York||Photo available |
|(unknown) Tolka||Kharkiv, Ukraine||Murdered|| |
|Hanka Tomalewicz||?||?|| |
|Wladek Tomalewicz||?||?|| |
|Stefan Tuman||?||Brazil?|| |
|Jankiel Waingarten***||Ostrolenka, 1907||Murdered in March, 1944|| |
|Dora Wassersztrum (Wasserstrom)||Markuszow?, 1924||?|| |
|Dawid Weingarten||Markuszow?||Israel|| |
|Natan Westelsznajder (Westschneider)||Markuszow, 1923||Israel|| |
|Pinkus Ziskind***||Dubno, 1912||Died in 1976 in Israel||Later fought with the Armia Ludowa
|Liebl from Markuszow||Markuszow||Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora|| |
|Shimon (unknown)||?||Kfar Saba, Israel|| |
Samuel "Mietek" Gruber, partisan leader.
| Mietek (Kozietulski) Partisans - Name||Birth data||After the war||Additional notesMIETEK (KOZIETULSKI) PARTISANS|
|(unknown) Andrejew (Andreiov)||?||Murdered in 1943-1944|| |
|Boris Dov Berezin***||Niedzwiedzica, 1915||Israel||aka Mikolai Berezin; Testimony available (in Yiddish) |
|Mark Marian Dworecki (Dvoretsky)||?||Died 1945-1947 in Germany||Photo available; was in charge of making bombs |
|Icek Eisenberg (Ajzenberg)||Markuszow||Murdered 1943-1945|| |
|Salomon "Shlomo" Ejsenberg (Eisenberg) ||Markuszow, 1916||Israel||Photo available; nicknamed Iron ("Zelaszny") Eisenberg|
|Stefan Finkiel (Finkel)***||Lithuania, 1915||?||Photos available; changed his name to Sam Finkel |
|Roman Fiszer***||Warsaw?||Died in Tel Aviv, Israel||Married a woman named Tzesia; fought in the Warsaw Ghetto|
|(unknown) Furman||?||Killed by accident 1943-1945|| |
|Szloma Goldwasser||Markuszow||Murdered 1943-1944|| |
|Aron Gotz||June 2, 1918||Died in March, 1972 in St. Louis, Missouri||Photo available|
|Shmuel Mietec Gruber***, commander||Pidhaitsi (Podhajce), 1913||USA||Changed his name to Samuel Gruber; video testimony available |
|Adam Halpern |||||Warsaw?, 1918||Israel|
|(unknown) Kaganowicz***||?||Murdered before 1943|| |
|Geniek Lipman||?||?|| |
|(unknown) Maczin||?||?|| |
|(unknown) Matros||?||?|| |
|Jusek Piasecki (Pisacki)||Bystrzejowice||Murdered in 1945|| |
|Janek Jankiel Rok |||||Warsaw?, 1918||?|| |
|Josef Rok |||||Warsaw?, 1914||?|| |
|Henryk Schongod (Haim Szengut)||Chocznia, 1914||Murdered 1944-1945||Polish army vet.; Imprisoned at Stalag VB & Stalag XIIIA|
|Josef Schongod (Szengut)||?||?|| |
|Shmuel Toper (Topper)||?||?|| |
|Vladimir Wolodia Walach||?||Murdered|| |
|Fabian Wolstein*** ||Stanislawow, 1917||Murdered?||aka
Wladyslaw Wolsztajn; photo available; also imprisoned at Altengrabow|
|(unknown) Zajfer (Zejfer)||Brzezany||Murdered 1943-1945|| |
|Hanka Zelman |||||Warsaw, 1924||Tel Aviv, Israel|| |
Back row, from left: Harold Werner, Symcha Barbanel, Dora Grynszpan, Abram Grynszpan, Yankel Barbanel
from Dubeczno (Vuyo); front, from left: Shienka from Wlodawa, Abram the Patzan, Chanina Henry Barbanel.
Note: In every other place this photo appears, the man at top right is identified as Velvele the Patzan.
I have confirmed that this is not correct information. It is is Yankel "Vuyo" Barbanel.
| Wlodawa Partisans - Name||Birth data||After the war||Additional notesWLODAWA PARTISANS|
|Chaim Ajzen ||Hrubieszow, 1923||Australia||Changed his name to Henry Steel; photo available; testimony available |
|Chaim Barbanel||Wlodawa||Murdered in 1943|| |
|Chanina Barbanel||Marianka, 1922||New Jersey||Changed his name to Henry Barbanel; photos available; testimony available|
|Chanche Barbanel||Wlodawa||?|| |
|Gedalia "Geniek" Barbanel||Wlodawa, 1926||?|| |
|Motel Barbanel||Wlodawa, 1907||Died in 1991 in USA||Rachmiel Barbanel's brother|
|Shimon "Sam" Barbanel||Marianka, 1918||Massachusetts||Nicknamed Simcha from Marianka; Photo available|
|Yankel Barbanel (())||Dubeczno, 1925||?||Changed his name to Jack Barbanel; nicknamed "Vuyo"; Photo available|
|Yosel Barbanel||Marianka||Murdered in 1943-1945||Brother of Simcha and Chanina; their father was Rachmiel|
|Bollek Beckerman||Wlodawa, 1924||Toronto, Canada||Changed his name to Bob Becker|
|Asalke "Ilke" Borensztejn||Wlodawa||Murdered in 1943|| |
|Chaska Brojsblat||Wlodawa, 1925||Florida||Became Chasia Lederman; testimony available|
|Dawid Cin (())||Wlodawa, 1921||Israel||Also spelled: David Tzinn |
|Moshe Cyn (Cin)||Wlodawa||Died Dec., 1988 in Montreal|| |
|Nasan Cyn||Wlodawa?||Murdered|| |
|Majer Derish||?||Died in Munich, Germany|| |
|Szymon Shimlay Erlich||Wlodawa, 1925||Israel||Photo available; fought with the Molotova partisans |
|Moshe Farbman||Wlodawa||?|| |
|Moshe "Mishke" Feldman||Pinsk, 1917||Committed suicide in 1943|| |
|Isralke "Srulke" Fiszman (Fishbein?)||Wlodawa||Murdered 1942-1944|| |
|Chaim Fiszman (())||Wlodawa||Murdered 1943-1944||Nicknamed Chaim Tancer ("dancer") |
|Manya Friedman||Warsaw||Murdered 1943-1944||Photo available |
|Shmuel Friedman||Warsaw||Murdered 1942-1943|| |
|Sasha Ganz||1903||Died in 1976 in Florida|| |
|Lovka Leon Gilderman||Ukraine, 1911 ||Israel||Changed his name to Leon Czarnobrodzki; photo available; later joined |
the Molotova partisans
|Srulka Glincman||Wlodawa, 1918||Died in 2013 in New Jersey|| |
|Yankale Glincman||Wlodawa, May 30, 1930||Died in 1984 in New Jersey||aka Jack Glincman; testimony available |
|Yuschka Glincman||Wlodawa, 1913||Died in 1999 in Toronto, Canada||Photo available |
|Mordechai Greenwald (Grinwald)||Adampol||Israel|| |
|Chaim Hindel||Lodz||Killed by accident before 1945|| |
|Bolek Huberman||?||Frankfurt, Germany|| |
|Zeev Wolf Jungsztajn||Zamosc, 1935||?|| |
|Josef Kahan||Wlodawa||Toronto, Canada||Photo available |
|Symcha Kahan||Wlodawa, 1920 ||Haifa, Israel|| |
|Nachum Knopfmacher||Wlodawa, 1919||Israel|| |
|Michael Knopfmacher||Wlodawa, Dec. 10, 1926||Haifa, Israel||Changed his name to Michael Kaftori; nicknamed Moshe |
from Kolacze; video testimony available (Hebrew)
|Pesia Kreis Knopfmacher (()) ||Wlodawa, 1922||Israel||Also called Perla; Photo available; testimony available |
|Chawa Kot||Parczew||Murdered before 1946|| |
|Chuna Kot (())||Uhnin, 1919||Murdered in 1943|| |
|Lejb Kot||Parczew, 1915||Died in 1996 in Israel|| |
|Avigdor Lederman||Wlodawa, 1898||Israel||Fought with the Molotova partisans |
|Srulke Lederman||Wlodawa, May 3, 1935||Died August, 1988 in BC, Canada||Changed his name to Samuel Lederman; testimony available |
|Yankele Lederman ||Wlodawa, 1927||Died in 2003 in British Columbia||Changed his name to Jack Lederman |
|Leon Lemberger Lukowski||Wlodawa, 1922||Israel|| |
|Abraham Lebenbaum||Parczew||Israel||Later joined the Molotova partisans |
|Moshe Lichtenberg, leader||Wlodawa, ~1917||Murdered in 1943||Photo available |
|Sara Lustigman||Wlodawa, 1924||Israel||Became Sara Omolinski |
|Leonid Leon Nemzer***, co-leader||1912 ||Murdered?||Previously in the Polish army; joined the Molotova partisans |
|Abram "Abie" Pomeranc||Wyryki, 1932||Died in 2008 in New Jersey||Photo available |
|Cyla Pomeranc||Wyryki, March 15, 1926||New York||Married Frank Blaichman; Became Cesia Blaichman |
|Hanka Pomeranc||1917||USA|| |
|Jurek Pomeranc||Wyryki, 1926||USA||Photo available |
|Shaja Pomeranc||1920 ||?||Later fought with the Ponamorenko partisans |
|Motel Rabinowitz (Rabinowich)||1915||?||Later fought with the Molotova partisans; Photo available |
|Motel Rozenberg (()), co-leader||Wlodawa||Murdered in 1943|| |
|Fajga Rosenblum||Zamolodycze, 1926||?|| |
|Mendel Rosenblum||Zamolodycze||Murdered in 1943|| |
|Zelik Rosenblum||Zamolodycze||Murdered in 1943|| |
|Isaac Rotenberg*||Wlodawa, 1925||Murdered in 1994 in Israel||Photos available; Murdered by 2 non-Jews with an axe in 1994 |
|Israel Rotenberg||Wlodawa||Murdered||Photo available |
|Moshe Rotstein||Warsaw||?||Nicknamed Moniek Rotstein |
|Unknown Sheftel (Szeftel)||Wlodawa||?|| |
|Alexander "Sasha" Shienka (())||Wlodawa||Israel||Photos available; last name also spelled Shenko, Shienko, Shenka |
|Moshe Spiewak (Siwak/Szywak) (())||Wlodawa?||?|| |
|Baruch Sznajderman||?||?|| |
|Leon Szporer (Shporer)||Skorodnica?, 1917||Montreal, Canada||Photo available |
|Wigdor Szporer||Skorodnica?, 1915||Montreal, Canada||Photo available |
|Shmuel Sztul (Stal/Stoll/Stul/Stuhl)||Wlodawa, March 11, 1919||Venezuela?||Photo available |
|Tema Kreis Turkienic (())||Wlodawa, 1924||Israel?||Became Tamara Turkieniec; Photo available |
|Bebale Weisman (())||Marianka, ~1933||Murdered in 1944|| |
|Chaim Wajsman (Weisman) (())||Marianka||?||Photo available |
|Chaim Wolf***||Wlodawa?||?|| |
|Ludwik Wurcelman||Lukow, 1925 ||?||Later fought with the Molotova partisans |
|Hershel Zimmerman||Gorzkow, 1918||Died in 1990 in New Jersey||Changed his name to Harold Werner; photo available; testimony available |
|David from Hola||Hola||Murdered in 1943|| |
|David from Turno||Turno||Likely murdered||Called "David Turno"; Jewish land owner |
|Chazan Lejb (Leib)||~1922||Likely murdered||Orphaned cantor from Lublin yeshiva |
|Hershel from Kodeniec||Kodeniec||Likely murdered|| |
|Moshe from Kodeniec||Kodeniec||Murdered in 1943 near Glebokie|| |
|Isa from Hola||Hola||Murdered in 1943|| |
|Mishka||?||Murdered in 1943-1944||Escaped Prisoner of War |
|Moshe the Butcher (())||Wlodawa||?||Nicknamed Moshe Peshalis (son of Pesia); photo available |
|Moshe Yoel from Hola||Hola||Murdered in 1943|| |
|Nuchem from Turno||Turno, ~1922||Likely murdered|| |
|Pearl from Hola||Hola||Murdered in 1943|| |
|Vashka the Russian||Russia||Murdered 1943||Non-Jew |
|Yankel from Warsaw||Warsaw||?||Nephew of Dawid Turno |
|Yankel from Kodeniec||Kodeniec||Likely murdered|| |
|Yefim (Yosel) from Kodeniec||Kodeniec||Likely murdered||Cousin of Yankel from Kodeniec |
|Itzik||10 year old partisan||?||Later joined the Soviet partisans |
Those below listed with a @ after their names also fought with the Wlodawa partisans, listed above. There was significant overlap between the two groups.
|Holod Battalion #2 (Chil) Partisans - Name||Birth data||After the war||Additional notesHOLOD #2 (CHIL) PARTISANS|
|Jakub Ajnszpann (Ejnszpann) ||Wlodawa||Israel?|| |
|Hannah Berkowitz@||Skorodnica, Oct. 10, 1910||Florida||Testimony available|
|Hershel Berkowitz@ ||Skorodnica||?||Photo available|
|Shaindel "Sonia" Bernhard||Komarowka Podlaska||Canada||Became Sonia Wajstaub|
|Szymek Bernhard (Berhardt)||Komarowka Podlaska, Nov. 20, 1924||Winnipeg, Canada||Changed his name to Simon Berchard|
|Hinda Birenbaum||?||?|| |
|Chaim Eliezar Blumenkranz ||?||Murdered|| |
|Abraham Cholomski ||Zaliszcze||?|| |
|Chancia Cholomski ||Zaliszcze||?|| |
|Rostka Duman Cholomski@||Zaliszcze||New York|| Became Rose Holm; photo available |
|Yurek Cholomsky@||Zaliszcze||Died in 2003 in New York||Changed his name to Joe Holm; photos available |
|Abram Cukier||Yekaterinburg, 1920||USA?|| |
|Josef Jusiek Cynowiec***||Pinsk, 1916||Haifa, Israel||Married a Jewish partisan named Irka |
|Herszek Cymerman (Zimmerman)||Josefow, 1917||?|| |
|Abram Czarny||1915||?|| |
|Berko Ekhauz (Eckhauz)||Parczew||?|| |
|Boruch "Butchke" Elbaum||Parczew, 1901||Died in Sweden||Occupation: surgeon |
|Edek Elbaum|| Parczew, 1916||Sweden||Also called Ela Elbaum |
|Chaim Engel*||Lodz/Brudzew, 1916||Died in 2003 in Branford, CT||Video testimony available |
|Marcus Erdepel||Konskowola, 1910||Died in 1973 in Israel||Hebrew name: Mordechai Erdepel |
|Andre Etman||Parczew, Sept. 2, 1935||New York||Testimony available |
|Judka Yehuda Fajgenbaum||1927||?||Photo available |
|Chaim Lonka Feferkorn@||Parczew, 1921||Israel||Photos available |
|Ada Fiszer*||Jaroslaw/Wieliczka, Jan. 1, 1915||Israel||Married Jitschak Lichtman; photo available; testimony available |
|David Friedman (())||Sosnowica||?||Nicknamed "David the Tall One from Sosnowica" |
|Fajga Zipora Frydman||Parczew, ~1930||Israel||Became Zipora Koren; Photo available |
|Ignacy Yitzchak Frymer||1908||?|| |
|Hilda Gimpel||Izbica Kujowska, 1917||USA|| Became Hilda Eisen; photo available; testimony available |
|Leon Giterman||Lutowisko, Nov. 16, 1914 ||?|| |
|Jakub Glazer||1914||?|| |
|Catharina "Kitty" Gokkes*||The Hague, Sept. 30, 1925||Died of typhus on Sept. 20, 1944||Called Cathy; tall with red hair; Photo available |
|Mordechai Goldfarb*||Piaski Luterskie, March 15, 1920 ||Died June 8, 1984 in Haifa, Israel||Photos available|
|Dawid Goldberg||?||?|| |
|Zygmunt Goldman||1915||?|| |
|Sam Goldwasser@||Parczew, 1926||Montreal, Canada||Nicknamed "Polimiot"; photos available |
|Leon Greenblatt Grimblovsky||Stary Orzechow||Israel||Photo available; testimony available (in Hebrew) |
|Abram Grynszpan@ ||Sosnowica, 1913||Brazil||Photo available |
|Dora Lask Grynszpan@ ||Lodz, Jan. 20, 1922||Brazil||Photo available; testimony available |
|Yechiel "Chil" Grynszpan@, commander ||Sosnowica, July 6, 1916||Brazil||Photos available; testimony available |
|Aryeh Helfgot***||1916||Israel||Leader of partisan group of eight fighters |
|Mietek Himelblat (Kimmelblat)||Lublin?, 1906||?|| |
|Ella Hipszman||Warsaw, Dec. 8, 1932||Massachusetts||Testimony available |
|Yankel Jacob Holender||Wlodawa||?|| |
|Janek Jankiel Honigsblum||Lubartow?, 1916||?|| |
|Srul Jakubowicz||?||?|| |
|Aron Kodenzak||?||Murdered in 1943 near Glebokie|| |
|Itzhak Korn||Parczew/Ostrow Lubelski||Murdered|| |
|Sucha Korn||Parczew||Israel|| |
|Zalman Korn||Parczew||Murdered in 1945||Called Zalman from Parczew |
|Zygmunt Korn||1919||?|| |
|Akiba Kuperman||Parczew, 1914||Israel||Photo available |
|Jankiel Kupersztajn (Kupersztejn)||Parczew, 1911||?|| |
|Liba Kupersztajn ||Parczew||?|| |
|K. Kupersztajn ||?||?|| |
|Yehuda "Leon" Lerner*||Warsaw, 1926||Died Dec. 7, 2007 in Israel||Nicknamed "Atleta"; photos available |
|Icek Lerer ||1926||?|| |
|Simcha Lewinson||Sosnowica||Murdered|| |
|Itzchak Lichtman*||Zolkiewka, Dec. 10, 1908||Israel||Photos available |
|Velval "Wladek" Litwak@||Sosnowica, 1923||Brazil||Changed his name to Zeev Litwak; nicknamed |
Velvale the Patzan^; testimony available
|Aslek? Margulies*||Zyrardow, 1921||Died in 1984 in Israel||aka Abraham Margulies; photo available |
|Abraham Milech||Parczew, 1917||Canada|| |
|David Milech ||Parczew, 1928||Died in 2002 in Canada|| |
|Moshe Milech ||Parczew||Canada|| |
|Cypora Miller@||Holowno?, 1922||?|| |
|Genia Milsztajn (Millstein)||Lublin, 1919||?|| |
|Junak Milsztajn (Millstein)||Serock, 1925||Israel||aka Yehuda Millstein; photo available |
|Naum Plotnicki*||Belarus, 1913||Died in Israel||Photos available; changed his name to Chaim Plotnikow |
|Josef Pankenfeld (Pomkienfeld)||?||?|| |
|Szaja Prikarn (Prikon)@||1915||?|| |
|Binyamin Raywer ||?||?|| |
|Josef Reznik***||Grodno, 1912||Israel|| |
|Irena Robaerek (Robaenek)||1923||?|| |
|Yefim Rolnik||Kharkov, Jan. 15, 1915||Florida||Changed his name to Joe Rolnik; testimony available |
|Sewer Rosen (Rozen)||Kurow, 1922||Died in Raciborz, Poland|| |
|Hershel Rubenstein (Rubensztejn) ||| @||Warsaw||Murdered in 1944-1945||Photo available; nicknamed The Commisar |
|Josef Rubin||Parczew, Sept. 25, 1930||Florida||Testimony available |
|Abram Rubinstein||Zahajki, 1927-1930||?||Photo available; nicknamed Abram the Patzan^ |
|Bronislawa Rubinstein||Wlodawa, Jan. 27, 1927||Died in 2013 in Los Angeles||Became Bronia Rubinstein; married Sol |
|Dudkin Dawid Rubinstein||Zahajki (Zahaika), 1919||Detroit||Changed his name to David Russell |
|Itzik Rubinstein||Zahajki||Murdered?|| |
|Lewek Rubinstein||Zahajki, 1922||Murdered?|| |
|Szlema "Senka" Rubinstein||Zahajki, Jun. 26, 1915||Died in 2011 in in Los Angeles||Changed his name to Sol Rubinstein |
|Josef Ruchelsman (Reishelsman)||Jlawa/Olsztyn, 1915||Israel?|| |
|Orsula Stern-Buchheim*||Essen, Aug. 28, 1928||Died in 1985 in Ashdod, Israel||Became Ilana Safran; photos available |
|Itsak Suchowolski||Parczew, Oct. 5, 1922||Died Sept., 2010 in Illinois||Changed his name to Irving Wolsk; testimony available |
|Bernard Szwarc (Schwartz)***||Ustrzyki, 1904||?|| |
|Szloma Szwarcz||Hrubieszow, 1923||Israel|| |
|Henryk Szyfenbauer (Haim Szupenbir)||?||?|| |
|Helena Szteinwawe (Steinwave)||1923||?|| |
|Boris Taborinsky*||Slonim, 1917||Russia or Israel||Later joined Soviet partisans |
|David Tempy||Parczew, 1904||Murdered in 1946 in Parczew|| |
|Mindla Torbiner||May 16, 1916||Died in 2005 in Canada||Became Mindel Shupak |
|Israel "Srulke" Trager*||Chelm, 1906||Died in 1969 in Israel||Photos available here and here |
|Mendel Turbiner (Torbiner)||Parczew?, 1915||Murdered in 1946 in Parczew|| |
|Reuven Turbiner||?||Murdered in 1943 near Glebokie|| |
|Henryk Haim Weinstein||1925||?|| |
|Ita Wertman||1910||?|| |
|Selma Wijnberg*||Zwolle, May 15, 1922||Branford, CT||Became Selma Engel; photos available |
|Abram Winderbaum ||Lomazy, May 8, 1923||Florida||Changed his name to Adam Winder; video testimony available; |
later fought with Skotniki's AL forces
|Lyowa Zitzman||Parczew||Israel||Changed his name to Leon Zitzman |
|Abram Zisman (Zysman) ||Parczew, 1903||Murdered in 1946 in Parczew||Nicknamed Abram Bochian |
|Abram from Zmiarka||Zmiarka||?|| |
|Dennis from Sosnowica||Sosnowica||Murdered in 1943|| |
|Donachy from Zahajki||Zahajki||?||Nickname of a woman at the Tabor camp site |
|Eli from Parczew||Parczew||Murdered|| |
|Harry from Warsaw||Warsaw||?|| |
|Nisan from Sosnowica||Sosnowica||?|| |
|Shainche from Ostrow ||Ostrow Lubelski ||Died of illness in 1943|| |
|Shmuel from Holowno||Holowno||?|| |
Former Soviet prisoners of war -- Jews who were in Sobibor and who had originated in Russia.
A gathering in memory of the uprising. Pictured (left to right): Jefim Litwinowsky, Arkady Wayspapir,
Alexander Pechersky, Alexei Waytzen, Nahum Plotnitsky, Simeon Rozenfeld.
| Soviet Partisans - Name||Birth data||After the war||Additional notesSOVIET PARTISANS|
|Lipa Lipman Aronowicz***||Parczew, Jan. 5, 1917||Israel||Fought with Krasni partisans led by Abramowitz |
|Moshe Bahir*||Plock, July 19, 1927 ||Died Nov., 2002 in Israel||Fought in Kovpak's unit |
|Jacob Biskubicz*||Hrubieszow, March 17, 1926||Ramat Gan, Israel ||Photos available; fought with Stefan Kaplun's unit in Polesie|
|Mordko Cholomski ||Zaliszcze||New York|| Changed his name to Morris Holm |
|Boris Cibulskiy*||Ukraine, 1907-1910||Murdered 1943-1944|| |
|Grisha Edelstein||Kalisz||?||Nicknamed Grishka from Kiev? |
|Misha Edelstein||Kalisz||Murdered 1945-1946||Memorial stone at Rivne, Ukraine |
|Aleksander Fedorov ||Dnipropetrovsk, 1901||Died in 1989 in Kiev||
Commanded the Chernigov partisan unit |
|Hela Felenbaum*||Lublin, Nov. 25, 1925||Died 1988 in Gedera, Israel||Became Hela Weiss; photos available |
|Dov Freiberg*||Warsaw, 1927||Died in 2008 in Israel|| |
|Yaakov Garbow||?||?|| |
|Zyndel Honigman*||Kiev, April 10, 1910||Died in 1989 in New Jersey||Photos available; Cousin of Harold Werner |
|Mordechai Kalmanowicz||?||?|| |
|Fiodor Kovalev||Russia||?||Leader of the Pushkin group partisans |
|Sydir Kovpak||Kharkov, 1887||Died in 1967||Non-Jew |
|Yankale Lederman||Wlodawa, 1920||Florida||Testimony available; changed his name to Jack Lederman |
|Chaim Litwinowski*||Russia, 1911||Died in 1994 in Soviet Union||Photos available here and here |
|Moshe Manos||Dubrovitsa, Nov. 17, 1926||Murdered March 29, 1943 || |
|Maksim Misyura ||Russia||?||Non-Jew; photo available; led group of Jews from Sarnik, |
Dabrowica, Wlodimierzec; fought with Voroshilov battalion
|Shmuel Oszlak||Zelechow||Murdered Feb. 12, 1944||Fought with the Alekseyev partisans |
|Alexander Petsjerski*||Kremenets, 1909||Died 1990 in Rostov-on-Don, Soviet Union||Photos available; changed his name to Sasha Pechersky |
|(unknown) Plaszkowski*||?||Murdered||Fought in Kovpak's unit |
|Janek Pomeranc||Wyryki||New York||Changed his name to Jack Pomeranc; photos available |
|Pasha Reichman||Russia, 1917||Died in 2005 in Israel||Changed his name to Itzchak Avidov; fought in Kovpak's unit |
|Chaim Rosenson||Kurow||Murdered||Photo available |
|Sana Rosenson||Kurow||Israel||Photo available |
|Alexander Shubayev*||Belarus||Murdered 1943-1945||Killed Nazi Sobibor cammander Johann Niemann with an axe |
|David Sierczuk* (Sirczuk/Serchuk)||Chelm, 1920||?||Photo available; fought with Shubetidze brigade |
|(unknown) Singer or Zinger***||?||Murdered 1943-1946||Fought with Krasni partisans led by Abramowitz |
|Zvi Sobelman*||?||Died in 1948 near Latrun||Fought in Kovpak's unit |
|Josef Sterdyner***||Legionowo ||Israel|| |
|Shmuel Szmajzner||Pulawy, March 13, 1927||Died on March 3, 1989 in Goiania, Brazil||Changed his name to Stanislaw Smajzner; Photos available |
|Kalman Teitelbaum||Koroplow, 1922||Died in 1985 in Ashdod, Israel||Changed his name to Zdiszek Teitelbaum; |
fought with the Krokopyuk group
|Arkady Wajspapir*||Ukraine, 1921||Russia||aka Arkadii Weisspapier; video testimony available |
|Kalman Wewryk*||Chelm, 1906||Canada||Photo available; testimony available |
|Sonia Wolcowska (Volkoviskaia)||Russia?, 1923||?||Fought with the October (Oktiabr) partisans |
The People's Army (Armia Ludowa, known as Gwardia Ludowa or "The People's Guard") was one of the two main military
organizations of the Polish underground. Jewish partisan Dr. Temczyn is in this photo with General Michal "Rola" Zymierski (top,
center) of the Armia Ludowa. Top, from left: Jan Czechowicz, Stanislaw Kotek-Agroszewski, Zymierski, Grab Widerkowski,
Stanislaw Szot. Bottom, from left Waclaw Czyzewski, Cien, Dr. Michael Temczyn. Photo from 1944 in Parczew.
General Zemsta, a Jewish commander of the A.L. forces.
A group of fighters from the Polish underground "Armia Ludowa" in the Krasnik area, 1944.
| Armia Ludowa Partisans - Name||Birth data||After the war||Additional notesARMIA LUDOWA PARTISANS|
|Staszek Bialek||?||?||Non-Jew |
|Leon Bielski||?||?||Fought with the Janowski partisans |
|Mikolaj Demko, general||Lodz, 1913||Died in 1986 in Poland||Partisan name: Mietek Moczar; Non-Jew |
|Pawel Dubek||?||?||Non-Jew |
|Ignacy Farbstein||Parczew, May 5, 1920||USA|| Changed his name to Isadore Farbstein; photo available; testimony available; |
Fought with Grynszpan's group and Skotnicki's AL forces
|Eliezer Lejzor Ginsberg||Ustilug||Drowned on Dec. 5, 1944||Fought with Skotnicki's AL partisans |
|Gerszon Gutman |||, commander
||Lomza, 1916||Died in 1979 in Warsaw||Changed his name to Gustaw Alef-Bolkowiak; photos available |
|Stefan Kaminsky||?||?||Partisan name: Geniek Kaminsky; Non-Jew |
|Sidor Karziesz||?||?||Non-Jew |
|Jan Holod||Wlodawa area||Murdered in 1944||Partisan name: Vanka Kirkpiczny (Kirpicznik); Non-Jew |
|Leon Kasman, commander||?||?||Fought with the Janowski partisans |
|Stanislaw Jerzy Lec||Lviv, 1909||Died in 1966 in Warsaw|| |
|Geniek Maksula||?||?||Non-Jew |
|Wictor Margulis||?||Israel||aka Stanislaw Sierpinski; photos available |
|Leon Marzenta||Ukraine||?||Non-Jew |
|Benjamin Mandelkern||Parczew, 1916||Ontario, Canada||Fought with the Armia Krajowa |
|Konstanty Mastalerz||1893||Died in 1986 in Poland||Non-Jew |
|Mikolaj Meluch (Mielich/Milicz)||Uhnin||?||Nicknamed Kolka; Non-Jew and Anti-Semite |
|Ruth Wanda Michalska||?||?||Fought with the Janowski group |
|Abraham Miller||?||?||Fought with Skotnicki's AL forces |
|Michael Rola-Zymierski, general||Krakow, 1890||Died in 1989 in Poland||Non-Jew |
|Jakob Rotenberg||Wlodawa, July 15, 1924||Died in Australia||aka Jakob Friedmann; fought in Janowski group; testimony available |
|Bronia Schumacher||?||United States||Fought with the Janowski partisans |
|Aleksander Skotnicki (Skutnitzki), commander||Lvov||Murdered in May, 1944||Nicknamed General Zemsta ("revenge"); photo available |
|Jankiel Sukman||Krasnik, 1918||Murdered in 1943|| |
|Mischa Stahlhammer||Krasnik, Oct. 16, 1923||Sweden||Photo available; testimony available |
|Abraham Szejner (Schoener)||Starachowice, Nov. 12, 1919||?||aka Avraham Scheiner; photo available |
|Mordechai Szlajcher||Bilgoraj||Murdered?||Photo available |
|Moses Michael Temchin (Temczyn)||Pinsk, 1909||Died in 1990 in New York||Nicknamed Znachor ("The Witch Doctor"); testimony available; photo available |
|Jan Wojtovitcz, captain||?||?||Non-Jew |
|Franciszek Wolinski, captain|| Przypisowka, 1918 ||Died in 1947 in Poland||Non-Jew |
|Wacek Wymolski||?||?||Non-Jew |
|Adek from Potok||Potok||Murdered in 1945|| |
|Dudek from Otwock||Otwock (Warsaw)||Murdered in 1944|| |
|Roman the Lieutenant||Donetsk?||?||Jewish fighter in Janowski unit |
| Hrubieszow Partisans - Name||Birth data||After the war||Additional notesHRUBIESZOW PARTISANS|
|Szloma Boden||Chelm, Nov. 11, 1918||Murdered before 1945||Photo available ||Julek Brand||Hrubieszow, 1906||Murdered before 1945||Photo available
|Szloma Brand||Hrubieszow, July 1911||Israel||Photo available; Fought with the partisans in Vilna|
|Jurek Cukier||Warsaw, Dec. 23, 1923||Israel||aka Joel Cuker; photo available|
|Bertold Dobrin||Germany, 1897||Murdered Nov. 5, 1943 at Poniatowa|| |
|Saul Dobuchna||Warsaw, 1923||Murdered September 1942||Photo available|
|Dawid Ehrlich||Grabowiec?||Murdered|| |
|Simcha Estik (Astyk)||Grabowiec?||Murdered|| |
|Kalman Firszt||Hrubieszow||Killed Dec. 7 1943 in Wolyn|| |
|Hawa Follman ||Bialystok, Nov. 20, 1919||Died on May 26, 1996 in Israel||Became Chaika Grossman; photos available|
|Asher Frenkel||Warsaw, 1901||Murdered in 1942 in Hrubieszow||Photo available |
|Aron Frumer||Hrubieszow, 1920||Killed in 1942 in Hrubieszow|| |
|Gedalia Gershuni||Bialystok, 1914||Murdered August 1942|| |
|Chaim Haus (Hausz)||Warsaw, 1920||Murdered in 1944 at Majdanek||Photo available |
|Jakub Jankiel Kac||Mogielnica, 1917||Murdered|| |
|Israel Kampner||Kalisz, 1923||Murdered near Hrubieszow|| |
|Franka Kirszenbojm||Hrubieszow||?|| |
|Felek Langleben||Warsaw||Murdered near Zamosc||Photo available |
|Dina Lewin||Lodz, 1923||Murdered near Hrubieszow|| |
|Ida Malkin ||| ||?||Murdered in 1943-1946|| |
|Moshe Micflikier (Mitzflicker)||Chelm, April 1, 1894||Died in Israel in 1964||Photo available |
|Yochanan Morgensztern||Zamosc, 1905||Murdered May 6, 1943|| |
|Yitzhak Nozic||Warsaw, 1920||Murdered September 1942||Photo available |
|Abraham Pinkelsztejn||Warsaw, 1920||Murdered near Hrubieszow|| |
|Frumka Plotnicka ||~1914||Murdered on Aug. 3, 1943 in Bedzin||Photo available|
|Moniek Ringwirc (Rajngewirc)||Radomsk, 1916||Murdered in 1942 in Hrubieszow||Photo available; his girlfriend was Pesia Furmanowicz |
|Zindl Zenik Reiber ||Szczebrzeszyn||Survived||Fought near Izbica|
|Henryk Jechiel Rozen||?||Murdered near Hrubieszow|| |
|Malka Rub||Grabowiec?||Murdered|| |
|Moshe Rubinczyk (Rubinchyk)||Belarus, 1914||Murdered Sept. 3, 1942||Photo available |
|Ruth Szklar||Warsaw, ~1923||Murdered near Hrubieszow||Photo available |
|Moshe Szpaszyk (Shpashek)||Warsaw||Murdered near Hrubieszow||Photo available |
|Chana Szysler||Grabowiec?||Murdered|| |
|Szyfra Szysler||Grabowiec?||Murdered|| |
|Moses Michael Temchin||Pinsk, 1909||Died in 1990 in New York||Fought in the area of Hrubieszow; see "Armia Ludowa" above |
|(unknown) Wajcer/Wicer/Wycer||Hrubieszow?||Murdered in route to base in Werbkowice|| |
|Chaim Eliezer Warman||Kurow, 1915||Murdered in 1943-1946||Photo available |
|Israel Zelcer||Zdolbrinow, 1913||Executed in September, 1942|| |
Ben Kamm, partisan responsible for helping Jews escape from the Janow Lubelski Ghetto.
| Janow / Krasnik Partisans - Name||Birth data||After the war||Additional notesJANOW LUBELSKI / KRASNIK PARTISANS|
|Unknown Bleicher (Blaicher) ||?||?||. |
|Abraham "Adolf" Bron or Braun ||?||Murdered||Leader of the Braun partisans |
|Moshe Braun ||?||?||Participated in a group near Bychawa |
|Hersz Brener (Brenner) ||Krasnik||Israel||Fought with Adolf Braun's group |
|Lejba Brener ||Krasnik, 1926||?||aka Leon Brener; Fought with Eliezar Wurman's group |
|(unknown) Ciencow||?||?||Non-Jew; Led a group of Russian partisans near Krasnik |
|Moshe Ehrlich***||Nowy Targ, 1920||Australia||Participated in a group near Bychawa |
|Leon Feldhendler* ||Zolkiewka, 1910||Murdered in 1945 in Lublin||. |
|Edward Forst or Forest ||?||Murdered 1943-1944||Leader of the Berek Joselewicz partisans |
|Yaacov Freitag ||?||Murdered 1943-1944||. |
|Josef Fuks ||Warsaw, 1923||Died in 2012 in New York||Changed his name to Joseph Fox; fought near Zdzilowice |
|Baruch Goldscher ||Lomazy, 1916||USA||Fought with Adolf Braun's group |
|Chaim Hirszman ||Janow Lubelski, Oct. 24, 1912||Murdered in 1945||Belzec escapee |
|Ben Kamm ||Warsaw, March 21, 1921||Died Nov. 8, 2010||Helped free 600 people from the Janow Lubelski Ghetto |
|Unknown Karnischauer ||Czechloslovakia||?||. |
|Ivan Kasian ||?||?||. |
|Grzegorz Korczynski, commander ||1915||Died in 1971 in Algeria||Non-Jew and Anti-Semite |
|Yehoshua Kleiman ||?||Murdered||. |
|Reuven Pintel ||?||Murdered 1943-1944||. |
|(unknown) Prohor or Prochors ||Russia||?||Non-Jew who fought with Adolf Braun's group |
|Henoch Prozanski ||Janow Lubelski, 1923||Died in 1986 in Israel||Photo available |
|Unknown Schnabel ||Czechloslovakia, 1903||?||Non-Jew |
|Josef Shapiro ||?||Murdered 1943-1944||. |
|Unknown Silberman ||Czechloslovakia||?||. |
|Mordechai Sternblitz ||?||?||Participated in a group near Bychawa |
|Jan Szelubski ||Lithuania, March 25, 1916||Died in 1985 in Israel||. |
|Lejzor Wurman ||Kurow, 1915||Murdered July, 1944||Led a partisan group in the Rzecice forests |
|Hersh Zysmilch ||Tarnogrod ||Israel||Fought with Adolf Braun's group |
| Radzyn Partisans - Name||Birth data||After the war||Additional notesRADZYN PODLASKI PARTISANS|
|Moshe Agmon ||?||?|| |
|Yitzchak Klejnman||Radzyn Podlaski||?|| |
|Liebl Lev ||?||Murdered in 1943|| |
|Avremele Pontsak (Ponczak)||?||?|| |
|Berel Pontsak (Ponczak)||?||?|| |
|Gershon Henich Pontsak (Ponczak)||?||Murdered at Oswiecim or Czemierniki|| |
|Lejb Pontsak (Ponczak)||?||?|| |
|Lejzor Pontsak (Ponczak)||?||Murdered in 1942|| |
|Yaakov Pontsak (Ponczak)||?||?|| |
|Dinah Rosewald ||?||?|| |
|Unknown Tunkelszwarcz||?||?|| |
Partisans who previously escaped from Sobibor. Includes Shmuel Szmajzner (back, 2nd from left), Abram Kohn
(2nd row, far right), Kalman Wewryk (2nd row, second from right) and others not identified.
| Miscellaneous Lublin Partisans - Name||Birth data||After the war||Additional notesMISCELLANEOUS PARTISANS|
|Ludka Arbetsman |||||?||Died 1943-1946 in Lublin|| |
|Eliezer Bart||Hrubieszow, 1915||USA||Fought in Vilna, outside of Lublin district |
|Josef Cukierman*||Kurow, May 26, 1930||Died in 1963 in New Jersey||Photos available ||Jan Karski||Lodz, 1914 ||Died in 2000 in Poland||Non-Jew; witnessed Izbica to testify to Shoah atrocities
||Hersch Klajnmann||Lublin, ~1924||Murdered circa 1942||Photo available
|Jakow Klaper (Klapper)||Lublin, 1916||Murdered?|| |
|Moshe Merensztajn (Merenstein)*||Gorzkow, 1899||Died in 1985 in Queens, New York|| |
|Szmul Zygielbojm||Borowica, 1895||Committed suicide in May, 1943|| |
|Cwi Hersz Zilberberg||Lublin?||?||Fought near Trawniki |
Symbol Guide (Legend)
* Escapee from the Sobibor Death Camp.
||| Escapee from the Warsaw Ghetto.
*** Escapee from Lipowa Street Camp, Lublin.
(()) Escapee from Adampol Labor Camp near Wlodawa.
@ Grynszpan group but combined with the Wlodawans (Lichtenberg group).
^ Note: "Patzan" was a nickname signifying a small person.
PARCZEW AND WLODAWA PARTISANS
From top, left: Dudkin Rubinstein, Jurek Pomeranc, Lonka Chaim Fefferkorn, Lova (Leon) Zitzman,
Yehiel Grynszpan, Yehuda "Junak" Milsztajn, Josef Rolnik, unknown Russian fighter. Kneeling, from left:
Abie Rubinstein (Abram the Patzan), Henry Barbanel, and Kirlow Rubinstein.
Dudkin Rubenstein (on the left), Yechiel Grynszpan (on the right), commander of this partisan unit;
Chaim Feferkorn (kneeling on the left) and Leon Lyowa Zitzman (kneeling on the right).
Unit commander Chil Grynspan, left, with unknown unit members.
Partisan Avigdor (Wigdor) Shporer in Lublin, 1944 (left side).
Partisans Zeev Litwack (Velvale the Patzan) and Chil Grynszpan, immigration photos to Brazil.
Leon Sittzmann (Zitzman), Joe Holm, and Herszel Rubensztejn.
Hersh Rubinstein, left. Shenka from Wlodawa, right.
From left: Moshe Peshalis, Motel Barbanel, his cousins Simcha Barbanel and Chanina Barbanel (skip the head
between them). Unknown, the uncle Gedalia "Geniek" Barbanel, unknown, and unknown.
Lichtenberg group partisans.
Nachum Knopfmacher, left, and Michael Knopfmacher (Michael Kaftori), right.
Unidentified partisans. Includes Michael Knopfmacher, 4th from right, center row. Next to him on the left: Chaim Ajzen.
ABRAHAM BRON'S GROUP
Partisans in the Lublin district, unidentified location. Left: Partisan leader Abraham Bron; others unidentified.
Unidentified partisans. Abraham Bron, back far left; Baruch Goldscher (Bernard Goldshore), third from left.
Unidentified partisans. Mischa Stahlhammer, front right.
Two fighters from the Polish underground "Armia Ludowa" in the Krasnik area. Photographed in 1944.
Left to right: Simon Rabines, Shmuel Emil Jegier, Frank Bleichman, Stefan Sam Finkel. In Markuszow.
Plater group (L-R): Zelazny "Iron" Ajzenberg, Martin Kirszenbaum, Mordechai "Marczynek" Kirszenbaum, Simon Rabiner.
Unidentified fighters in Markuszow between 1943 and 1946. Seem to be affiliated with the Armia Ludowa.
OTHER PARTISAN GROUPS
Partisans Isadore Farbstein, Rostka Holm, and Frank Blaichman.
- Azoy iz es geven (The Way It Was, Yiddish), Buenos Aires, 1948 by Jonas Turkow.
- Chaim Ajzen Remembers by Henry Steel
- I Chose Life by Samuel Gruber
- Codename Barber: The Story of Partisan Mischa Stahlhammer by Semmy Stahlhammer
- Escape from Sobibor by Richard Raschke
- Fighting Back: A Memoir of Jewish Resistance in WWII by Harold Werner
- From the Ashes of Sobibor: A Story of Survival by Thomas Toivi Blatt
- Fugitives of the Forest: Heroic Stories of Resistance & Survival in WWII by Gerald Levine
- Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past by Martin Gilbert
- Hurbn un gvure fun shtetl Markuszow (Destruction and Heroism, Town of Markuszow. Yiddish. Tel Aviv, 1955.
- Martyrdom and Revolt. Documents and Testimonies by Miriam Novitch, New York, 1980.
.. Includes several testimonies from Sobibor uprising survivors who fought as partisans.
- Promise at Sobibor: A Jewish Boy's Story of Revolt by Fiszel Bialowitz
- Rather Die Fighting: A Memoir of WWII by Frank Blaichman
- Reluctant Soldier: A Jewish Partisan's Story by Jakob Friedman
- The Reminiscences of Dov Berezin
- To Sobibor and Back: An Eyewitness Account by Kalman Wewryk
- Story of a Secret State: My Report to the World by Jan Karski
- Szmul Zygielbojm: Profile of Partisan Hero by Ronald Cohn and Jesse Russel
- The Witch Doctor: Memoirs of a Partisan by Dr. Michael Temchin
- The Undefeated by Shiye Goldberg
- War of the Doomed: Jewish Armed Resistance in Poland, 1942-1944 by Shmuel Krakowski
- About Jewish Partisan Frank Blaichman
- Armies of the Young: Child Soldiers in War and Terrorism; pps. 48-51 discuss partisan children in
.. the Lublin Forests
- Fate of Some of the Sobibor Survivors
- Iberlebungen fun a Veloner Krigsgefangenen in Sefer Zikaron le-Kehillat Wielun.
.. Tel Aviv, 1971, pp. 380-384. Testimony of Aryeh Lejb Helfgot.
- Imferno em Sobibor/Portuguese (Hell in Sobibor) by Stanislaw Szmajzner
- Jewish Revolts and Uprisings in the Lublin District
- Long Valley Man's Memoir Tells Heroic Life of Partisan
- Rescue of Jews from the Wlodawa Ghetto
- Rise and Fall of Wlodawa - from the Yizkor Book
- Russian Jews and the Sobibor Escape
- Sobibor Survivors' Testimonies
- Understanding the Polish Obsession with Salomon Morel
- Belzec Survivor Braha Rauffmann
- Escape from Sobibor
- Poland, Personally: Featuring Michael Kaftori, Wlodawa Partisan
- Profile of survivors Blaichman and Gruber
- Shmuel Mietek Gruber Video Testimony
- Tribute Video to Cesia and Frank Blaichman & Rose and Joe Holm
- Definitions of Important Terms Related to Jewish Partisans
- Lasting Memory Foundation: Lublin District Commemorations