Remembering the Jewish Partisans in Poland's Lublin District

ALSO ON THIS SITE: Memorials to victims in:
[Lublin District, Poland] * [Chelm - Hrubieszow Death March]
[Dubno, Ukraine] * [Belzec Death Camp]
[Sobibor Death Camp] * [Majdanek Concentration Camp]



Nazi-sponsored persecution and mass murder fueled resistance to the Germans in the Third Reich itself and throughout occupied Europe. Although Jews were the Nazis' primary victims, they too resisted Nazi oppression in a variety of ways, both collectively and as individuals. The Jewish partisans listed below are an inspiration. They valiantly fought and died for freedom against the Nazi murderers.

Amcha ("your people") was the "code" that the Maccabees had used when they fought the Syrians in the 2nd Century BCE. Jewish partisans in the forests of Lublin used this same password to identify other Jews in the area. In fighting as partisans, their number one goal was to save Jewish lives. Women with small children and the elderly found refuge because of the men and women listed below. Several of the "family camps" grew to hundreds of people, most especially the camp called Tabor operated by Grynszpan's 2nd Holod Battalion and the camp called Ohozhe operated by the Lichtenberg group.

Both the Narodowe Sily Zbrojne (NSZ), which had around 75,000 Polish fighters, and the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa), which had around 270,000 fighters, consisted of many vicious anti-Semites. The groups were very active in the Lublin district. Therefore not only did the partisan groups have to withstand the Nazis and anti-Jewish Polish fighters from these two armed groups, but also scores of anti-Semitic Polish farmers intent on murdering Jews. Despite these obstacles, two cases of Jewish partisans rescuing Poles is documented in Marek Jan Chodakiewicz's book "Zydzi i Polacy 1918-1955" (Jews and Poles 1918-1955). In February of 1944, Abram Braun saved his friends, Stanislaw Saganowski ("Dab") and his son Jerzy Saganowski ("Brzoza") of Aleksandrowka from the NKVD and the UB. They were active members of the NSZ, and thus had to go into hiding after the arrival of the Red Army. Braun arranged for immunity for the Saganowskis from the local secret police and protected them afterward. Braun helped them move to his house in Krasnik. Subsequently, Saganowski, Sr. went into a black market business with his Jewish friend. Saganowski, Jr. enrolled at a high school in Krasnik. Both maintained personal contacts with their NSZ colleagues but remained passive in the anti-Communist struggle. In a separate incident in the spring of 1945, Aleksander Mieczyslaw Skotnicki saved a man, Pawel Golombek, from the Communist secret service (UB). Golombek was a Polish policeman who was secretly in the Underground.

Two of the group leaders, Gruber and Grynszpan, had both previously been corporals in the Polish Army. Jews had been required to serve their country -- even as the borders changed -- for centuries. This previous military training was crucial to their success as unit leaders. The conditions the partisans had to overcome are monumental by any standard. There was not just the lack of food, the constant starvation, and the need to find food by any means possible. Another obstacle was dealing with the fact that most of their family members had previously been murdered and overcoming the feeling that they were now truly alone in the world. There was also the problem of how to get weapons, how to stay warm in the winters, and how to avoid detection by Polish and German soldiers. Complicating this last matter was the fact that a majority of Poles and Ukrainians were eager to report Jews to the Nazi murderers.

Many of our Jewish partisans overcame these tremendous difficulties, but others were not as fortunate. We fondly remember the Jewish partisans of the Lublin distrct as heroes, today and forever.

Groups form Northwest of Lublin: In Markuszow and Kamionka in 1942, groups of young Jews who escaped from ghettos or otherwise avoided capture managed to acquire weapons and food. When the Jewish community of Markuszow was rounded up, some 700 Jews fled. The four separate Jewish partisan groups -- one led by Mordechai Kirshenboim, a second led by brothers Yerukham and Yaakov Gotheilf, a third called the Cossacks, and a fourth group from Kamionka led by Frank Blaichman -- set up camps in the Wola forests. The first three groups were mostly captured or killed in combat. There were two specific incidents the groups faced after many years of fighting and surviving. Near Markuszow was a village called Pryszczowa Gora, built on a peaty area with 350 families in the village. The residents, all peasants, were poor. Markuszow Jews built caves and camouflaged themselves at this locale. The shochet went out one day and was spotted by the military police after a local villager complained. The Germans were led to the entrance of the cavesite. The cave entrances were stuffed with straw and set on fire. All of the Jews were dead, except one little girl. She was taken in by the villagers and passed from house to house. The second incident concerned a separate group of Markuszow fighters, the Emilia Plater group led by Jegier. On Feb. 4, 1944, there were three unknown peasants at a barn owned by a farmer the partisans knew in Pryszczowa Gora. The threesome had reported the Jews to the Germans, and by the time the partisans realized this they were ambushed. The two survivors of this incident were Janek (also called Yosel), unknown surname, and Sziye Goldberg. They were both severely wounded.

Frank Blaichman's group was more successful because they were better armed. The group eventually rose to 75 fighters and merged with a group led by Shmuel "Mietek" Gruber in the summer of 1943. The combined group total was around 90 fighters. Blaichman's group was very successful in acquiring weapons, which several of the other Jewish partisan groups had great difficulty achieving. At just age 16 when the war started, Frank Blaichman became an unlikely leader and hero. He had no military background or training, but assumed the role of leader of the group for the purpose of avenging the blood of his murdered family members.

All Jewish members of the Polish Army were sent to the Lipowa 7 Labor Camp in Lublin. Samuel Gruber and other Lipowa 7 inmates were forced to build the Majdanek Concentration Camp as part of their slave labor detail. Gruber had been injured in a battle in the campaign against the Nazis, so he was eventually taken out of slave labor. He remained at the Lipowa camp, but was assigned to work in an office of a hospital that distributed uniforms, rifles, and pistols to German soldiers coming from the front. He was able to steal weapons, which he funneled to the anti-German Polish underground.

In October of 1942, Gruber and another prisoner named Kaganowicz led a group of around 25 men into the Kozlow woods north of Lublin. Gruber had difficulty finding weapons after escaping from Lipowa 7. His group was small and largely unarmed, but had local connections with friendly farmers. Their group placed vulnerable, sick, or elderly Jews with farmers they could trust to avoid attracting attention.

The Blaichman and Gruber groups merged in summer, 1943, and together they hunated down Nazis and any Poles who collaborated with them. They picked off German patrols and stole German weapons. They initially fought in the area west of the Wieprz River in the Janowski (Yanov) forest west of Lublin. The combined forces acquired rifles, pistols, and machine guns as well as food and clothing obtained from various sources, including Nazis, Polish villagers, and an occasional political ally. This combined group, "The Lubartow Group", reached Chil Grynszpan's groups in January of 1944 and merged with them. The combined groups had around 400 fighters and worked closely with the Armia Ludowa.

Groups form Northeast of Lublin: Yechiel Grynszpan was part of a horse-trading family and thus became familiar with the wagon routes and swamps in the forests near where he grew up prior to the war. His family mostly traded with non-Jews, and therefore he also knew which Polish farmers could be trusted. Grynszpan and his group set up a camp in the woods called Tabor, where the elderly, children, and those too weak to fight could still survive. The camp was protected by the Jewish partisan unit and surrounded by dense forests. The people in the Tabor camp were mostly from local villages such as Kodeniec, Pachole, Zahajki, and Krzywowierzby. The three village elders who oversaw the Tabor camp were Abram from Zaliscze (Abram Cholomski), Yankel from Holowno, and Nuchem from Krasnowka. Jews set up a makeshift synagogue in the forests and Grynszpan worked to motivate the partisans, saying "You are born once - you only die once". Grynszpan's group worked with Fioder's brigade, Lichtenberg's group, and later the Gruber-Blaichman-Jegier group from the Pulawy area. They later formed a tight bond with the Armia Ludowa, who recognized Grynszpan's group was the most organized Jewish resistance in all of eastern Poland. It consisted of Jews native to Parczew and Sosnowica as well as a group of POWs who had escaped from the camp in Biala Podlaska.

Sadly, in the fall of 1943, the Nazis invaded the campsite and 75 of the around 200 of the Jews living in it were murdered. In the fall of 1943, more than a dozen of the Sobibor uprising escapees found Grynszpan's group -- each sick, starved, and frozen. They included: Yehuda "Atleta" Lerner, Abraham Margules, Hella Fellenbaum, Ajzik Rotenberg, Itzhak Lichtman, a Russian Jew with a pistol (Taborinski), Ada Fischer, Kitty Gokkes, and Ursula Stern. Prior to finding the Grynszpan group, Sobibor survivors Lerner, Taborinski, and Moshe Goldfarb were with a group of six other Sobibor survivors who were lured into a group of around 20 Polish fighters led by two brothers called Piatek. Without warning, these Polish fighters attacked the Jewish Sobibor survivors near Hola, and six were murdered, including one woman. Three lived to tell the story. They left this group and continued to search for allies, and fortunately met the Grynszpan partisans.



The Lubartow group of Gruber and Blaichman eventually joined Chil's battalion. The combined units were tough, experienced, and disciplined by the fall of 1943. There were 150 people in the combined unit, including 20 armed women who fought alongside the men. The forces cut phone poles between Lublin and Wlodawa, attacked police headquarters and government posts in Kaplonosy and Parczew, blew up at least four army troop trains, and hijacked German supply trucks on the highways. They also picked off Germans whenever it was possible to do so.

In October of 1942, a separate group of around a dozen partisans formed outside of Adampol, Poland. The group gained members one by one, until it reached around 40 fighters. Freedom was a new concept for this group, as most had been imprisoned in the Wlodawa or Adampol ghettos and had found a way to escape. This group was the beginnings of the Lichtenberg group. Another group of Jews mostly from the Wlodawa area formed inside of the labor camp and eventually escaped. This group, led by Nahum Knopfmacher, eventually merged with Lichtenberg's group, but the two leaders had different ideas about the right actions to take in the short term. Lichtenberg was more focused on revenge and Knopfmacher was more focused on freeing Jews from Adampol Labor Camp.

Wlodawa is located east of the Bug River, near Sobibor. The Polish farmer Papinski was a messenger between the Lichtenberg group and local populations. In May, 1943 the Wlodawa Ghetto was liquidated. Between the partisan groups in the area, there were at least four rescue missions into the Wlodawa Ghetto to smuggle Jews out of it, and over 100 Jews were taken out of the ghetto or the nearby Adampol Labor Camp.

Lichtenberg's group joined the Chil Grynszpan group, but Lichtenberg's leadership style also clashed with the Grynszpan partisans. Around 30 fighters from the Lichtenberg group left the Grynszpan group and joined a Russian partisan detachment called Woroshilow led by Kolka Meluch. Subsequently, they crossed the Bug River to continue their struggle for freedom in the Soviet partisan movement. While there, unit leaders Moshe Lichtenberg, Motel Rosenberg and Chaim Fiszman were shot by Kolka in a dispute over machine guns. After losing these key men, Leon Nemzer, who had served in the Polish Army, took over as the group's leader. At its height, the group consisted of around 90 men and 10 women. The ammunition and food supplies of the Lichtenberg group were consistently very sparse. Only around 30 of its fighters were armed. The local Poles in the area around Wlodawa were very hostile to the Jewish partisans. In April of 1944, most of the Lichtenberg partisans joined the Red Army.

Partisan Zev Velvele Litwack recalls:
"On December 16, 1942 Chil led us to the village Ostrowa, where we started a heavy fight with the Hitlerists and after some hours we succeeded in conquering the position. German officers fell in our hands and 12 Polish policemen were shot. We captured many arms, uniforms, and other things. We burned down their housings and the town hall. The mayor, who had cooperated with the Germans, was shot. This was the first act of revenge for the Jewish bloodshed." But there was a price to pay: shortly after the victory, the Germans surrounded the partisans. The partisans were bombed for three days with planes and tanks. According to Litwack, "When they were about 40 meters from our range of sight came the order: 'Fire!' And we opened fire from all sides, so that the Germans did not know from where it came and they were standing in an open cornfield on their way towards us. In this battle we lost three partisans, two Russians and one Jew, Simcha Levinson from Sosnowica. Tens of Germans were killed. After fighting for about five hours the Germans retreated."

1942 was a year with great snowfalls, storms and frosts. Winter was at its peak. The situation for the partisans was not good; most were naked, barefoot, and hungry. They attacked villages taking weapons and cattle by force, but lost Jewish fighters in each attack. Continues Litwack: "On January 11, we were surrounded in the forest of Parzew by a big German unit. But our Russian commander (Fiodor Kovalev) tricked them and we pushed back their attack. On February 26, 1943 at 11am, a group of 10 people with the commander Zemsta (Alexander Skotnicki, a Jew from the Armia Ludowa) were surrounded by 400 Germans. My comrades were sleeping in the hut of the forest guard and only I, wearing a German uniform, kept guard. The Germans approached, shouting: 'Comrade (friend)!' I threw myself down on the ground and started shooting at them. The Germans answered with heavy fire from machine guns. I detained them until the group left the hut and I succeeded in withdrawing to the other side. Our fighters, among them Zipora Koren (a teenager of around 15) opened fire and succeeded in passing and leaving the German encirclement.

In March 1943, the first planes with arms from the Soviet Union arrived. At the same time we separated from Russian partisans and formed a Jewish division under the leadership of Chil. We bombed trains near the village of Sarki, not far from Sobibor; we burned down a glass-works factory in Dubeczno. In Wyryki, we burnt the guardhouse, in Kaplonosy we attacked the German army and killed 26 Germans, and in Sosnowica we attacked a garrison and killed 120 Germans. Additionally, our forces destroyed the Bridge near to Sawin, where the railways passed on which the trains with German soldiers to the front were transported. One night we invaded in Parczew, burned the town hall and shot the guard. A week did not pass without our having removed from the rails a train with soldiers.

At the same time we stopped sleeping in the forest but slept instead in the villages that we had gained control of and where we had sympathetic non-Jews. The government of all councils of the whole district of Wlodowa went over to our side. Then Chil Grynszpan organized the division under the command of the Armia Ludowa, left-wing Poles. Chil was promoted high commander.

In April, 1943 we were heavily attacked in the forest of Kaplonosy. In this battle we lost 70 Jewish fighters. Women and children rescued from the ghetto Wlodowa were also killed. It became known to us that in Adampol there were Jews from Wlodowa and Sosnowica. Nisan Cyn agreed to join me, but he was the only one. In the evening we both went to a farmer in Kaplonosy whom we knew very well. We promised him a good pig if he would bring us to the camp. He led us there and remained half a kilometer away of the camp and we continued. Nisan stood at the gate and I in German-uniform entered the camp. I took two Jews with me and left.

The winter months were slowly creeping until the summer of 1943 arrived. We were informed that Jews were still living in the ghetto. I learned that from my whole family which was killed in Sobibor, only father survived. I sent a farmer from the village Krasnowka to bring my father to the forest. The farmer returned without my father but with a letter from him in which it was written: 'My son, I don't have anything to live for and it is not worthwhile for me to come to the forest. G-d shall help you and guard you from all dangers. Revenge all, for the innocent Jewish blood which was shed'. On May 2, 1943 at night, Wlodowa was encircled by S.S.-men and Ukrainians driving out Jews from their hiding places. Tens of men, women, and children were shot in the street. My father too was shot on Wyryki street. This was the last action to dispose of Jews in the Wlodowa ghetto, which was one of the last remaining ghettos in the entire region.

One night I invaded in the first barrack of the camp Adampol. The Jews were already sleeping and I woke them taking along with me more than 30 people, ordering them to pass the fence while I jumped after them. All this was accomplished so silently that nobody noticed what happened. The farmer led us to the forest of Kaplonosy, where Chil Grynszpan was waiting with his whole group. This successful experiment increased our courage and we started enlarging our visits taking out Jews from Wlodowa, Sosnowica, Kaplonosy, Wyryki, and other places. Another day we made an assembly and decided to take all the Jews from Adampol, as we had learned that the last action was going to take place. It was determined that five men with arms should enter the camp hiding the arms and organizing the Jews to be prepared to leave the camp for the forest. Yurek Cholomsky and four others were sent. But the Nazi head of the camp, Selinger, learned about the presence of the partisans in the camp and about their intention to lead the Jews out of the camp. He phoned the Gestapo in Wlodowa and on the same day some hundreds of them enclosed the camp and drove out all the Jews to the fields and fired at them. The five partisans went the first and when they were in the fields they shouted loudly all the Jews started escaping and dispersing in all directions. The Germans opened fire killing all the Jews, except Yurek, a man from Wlodawa, and Yeshayahu from Wyryki. On this day, 600 Jews were massacred from Wlodowa and the surroundings. All were buried in a common grave next to Adampol.

In June 1943 we fought against the Germans behind the village Zahajki. Our commander was then Yechiel Grynspan, who conducted the battle with exceptional fighting spirit and strategic talent. In the same battle we lost two fighters. One was Yeshayahu Lichtenstein, the son of the Rabbi of Wlodowa. In every place we went, we were ambushed by Germans and Poles filled with hate for the Jews. We fought against them day after day. We were never able to relax because of the terrible situation we had to confront. For us, there was not much hope that we would survive this devastation. But within each of us existed a great spirit to rise up to fight." -- Velvele Litwack
One daring, but ultimately unsuccessful, action devised by the Grynszpan unit was an attempt to liberate 770 Jewish prisoners from the Krasnik Labor Camp (Skret). Liaison was established with the Jews inside the camp, who were supplied with 30 revolvers and a number of hand grenades. A plan for concerted action was carefully elaborated; the revolt inside the camp was to flare up simultaneously with the partisan attack from the outside. An informer revealed the plans to the Nazis. Several days before the scheduled revolt was to take place, the Nazis seized the armed rebels inside the camp, killed the bulk of them, and transferred others to the nearby Budzyn.

By July of 1944, Chil's partisan forces -- which had formed an alliance with the Armia Ludowa -- was surrounded by German soldiers. On July 22, the Red Eighth Army passed them during the night, and the partisans from the Mietek and Grynszpan groups were behind the front line of liberated Poland. Of the roughly 4,000 Jews who had fled to the forests of Parczew, Markuszow, and Wlodawa between 1940 and 1944, only around 200 were still alive. Chil's group was one of the most successful partisan detachments in all of Europe.

Groups form Southwest of Lublin: By 1942, the last Jews of Krasnik had been deported to the Belzec Extermination Camp. Hundreds of them were able to escape into the woods before the deportation. Avraham Braun, partisan name Adolf Braun, operated in the area around Krasnik, where the Budzyn and Krasnik (Skret) Labor Camps were located. His group consisted of around 50 Jews, mostly escapees from labor camps or ghettos. All of Braun's men, with the exception of 15 of them, were gunned down by their supposed allies, led by Lieutenant Karol Herzenberger Lemichow. Additional information about resistance in the Krasnik area is available here. Abraham Braun is discussed on page 111 of "The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust" by Martin Gilbert.

Another group operating in the Krasnik area was under the leadership of the Armia Ludowa Polish fighters, specifically one Grzegorz Korczynski. Two Jews, Jan Szelubski and a man named Bleicher, survived when this Jewish partisan unit was attacked by Poles in the area surrounding Krasnik. After the war, it was determined that Korczynski had ties to the murderers of this Jewish unit and he was held fully responsible for the action. This event likely happened in 1942 and it is unclear how many Jewish partisans were murdered.

Korczynski persisted, with the blessing the AL leadership. His job was to organize additional groups in the southern part of the Lublin district. Korczynski's unit grew in size in fall, 1942 and consisted of the following sub-units: A group from Frampol that had escaped from the Ghetto; a group under Yaakov Freitag that had escaped from the village of Reczyca in Pulawy County; a group under Reuven Pintel's leadership; a group that escaped from the Majdanek Concentration Camp under the leadership of a partisan named Robert; and several non-Jewish Polish fighting groups.

Prior to joining up with Korczynski's group, Robert's Majdanek escapees carried out a successful ambush on the road near Bychawa, attacking two trucks carrying gendarmes, on October 15, 1942.

Together, the combined unit successfully attacked the Germans at the Janiszow labor camp near Annopol in November, 1942. Although all of the prisoners were free to leave the camp, they had no resources such as food and arms, and many were either caught and killed or caught and sent to Budzyn Labor Camp. Around 60 prisoners successfully escaped, but were eventually attacked and murdered by armed Polish groups.

Next, Korczynski's unit was intent on attacking the Rejowiec-Lwow rail line. But on April 4, 1943, every Jewish partisan in the unit -- with one exception, Korczynski himself -- was murdered. The circumstances surrounding the deaths have never been explained.

Groups form South of Lublin: There were also several groups that formed in the southern tier of the Lublin district. They were frequently in touch with Russian units that traveled in and out of the district and then headed back east. The Berek Joselowicz detachment under Eduard Forst had a base in Puszcza Solska, a little northwest of Jozefow in Tomaszow Lubelski County. The group formed and fought in April and May of 1943, but by August they had been dissolved -- almost surely murdered.

According to Shmuel Krakowski, in July 1942, Jews and Poles joined Rayevski's Russian unit in the south of Lublin. This unit became the largest in the area and had three submachine guns and a few rifles as well as grenades and pistols for each fighter. Rayevski decided to leave to go to Russia but the Jewish partisans stayed behind because they were familiar with the local area. The unit split up, with a majority heading east. The leftover Jewish unit, let by the Met brothers, was based near Kosznia near Frampol. A local forest watchman in Kosznia told the Germans exact details of the whereabouts of the Jewish partisans. The Jews killed this Polish collaborator. But when the Armia Krajowa found out about it, they spread anti-Jewish propaganda in the area and recruited hundreds of peasants to expel the partisans from the forests (source: Shmuel Krakowski).

On October 2, 1942, 300 Jews fled Frampol during the deportations to death camps. Some of them had acquired guns earlier and had them hidden in the forests. This group joined with Korczynski's Armia Ludowa unit and was wiped out before the end of 1943.

In the vicinity of Majdan Tyszowski, Tomaszow Lubelski county, a Jewish partisan unit commanded by a Jew from Lublin named Cadok (Zadok) established contact with the local unit of the Armia Krajowa. After a successful joint operation, the Armia Krajowa unit invited the Jewish combatants for a feast. The Jews were first served poisoned vodka and then fired upon. No one survived (source: Unequal Victims: Poles and Jews during World War).

Groups form East of Lublin: There were more than a dozen Russian partisan groups in the Lublin district. There was significant overlap between the Russian partisan groups in the Lublin district and both the Red Army and the Armia Ludowa. One of the earliest Russian partisan group was called the Fioder group (also Pushkin's group, or Imienia Jozefa Bema). It consisted of both Jewish and non-Jewish Russian fighters, mostly escaped prisoners of war, and had around 40 unskilled fighters. It's leader was Fioder Kovalov (partisan name: Teodor Albrecht), a Soviet officer and escaped POW, and the group fought in the Makoszka forest near Parczew. The first battle of Fioder's partisans took place in November 1942. The partisans tried to beat off a German assault on a forest where a group of Parczew Jews were hiding. But the partisans were forced to retreat, and most of the Jews were killed on the spot. On Dec. 6-8, 1942, the partisans fought another battle in the Parczew forests. In spite of having considerable police and military forces, the Germans suffered significant losses while the partisans managed to successfully extract themselves out of the encirclement. On December 17, 1942 the Fioder unit captured the town of Ostrow Lubelski, killing a policeman and wounding a few others. During this battle a Polish police post was attacked, a post office, a dairy factory assisting the German war effort, and a German government office were destroyed. In the spring of 1943, Fioder's forces joined with Grynszpan's group. In the second half of 1943 and the beginning of 1944 Ostrow Lubelski was under the control of the Communist AL (Armia Ludowa). The following Jewish members were killed in action around Passover, 1943: Chuna Kot, Lejb Grinblat, Hersz Rodzinek, Yosef Waserman and Itzak Tarif. Eventually Fioder is believed to have gone into Russian territory (further east).

A Russian group led by the Edelstein brothers and Itzhak Reichman numbered around 20 fighters. The Edelstein brothers were refugees from Kalisz who went to Povorsk, Ukraine and organized an underground resistance there. The group operated out of the forests. Misha Edelstein was humble and modest, but wanted revenge for the deaths of his parents and girlfriend Raja Plus. Today in Rivne there is a memorial in memory of Misha Edelstein. He was murdered in battle after the liberation. Pasha Reichman later joined another unit and went to Israel after the war.

Another Soviet partisan group, led by Kolka, is discussed above.

A fourth Soviet partisan group, called the Janowski group, is discussed in the next section below.

The Wanda Wasilewska brigade led by Oleksiy Fedorov (Alex Fyodorov) was a large brigade of mixed Jewish and non-Jewish fighters. This group mostly fought east of the Bug River, but eventually crossed westward to take on the Germans more directly. According to partisan survivor Ben Kamm, the Fyodorov Brigade had destroyed 549 German trains by the end of 1943. Many of the groups, including the Fyodorov group, received airdrops from Russia, which included such needs as ammunition, mines, and medicines. They also received regular reports from Radio Moscow. The group's objectives were to distribute weapons to the local population and to get as many people to fight as possible.

Jews Who Fought with the Armja Ludowa: Several units also joined with the Armia Ludowa, the left-wing Polish forces fighting the Nazis. Most of the Jews involved in the AL were not political at all, but simply were fighting to sustain their livelihood. The Janowski group was one such group who fought with the Armia Ludowa. This mixed group, which had around 50 to 70 fighters in 1944, was led by Jews Leon Kasman and Leon Bielski. The Janovski group arrived to Parczew forests at the beginning of 1943, crossing west from the Bug. Their main mission was to free the Poniatowa Labor Camp near Opole Lubelski. However before that took place, in November of 1943, all of the Jews in Poniatowa were murdered. The group continued moving west and came to Mielec, Poland near the end of the war. They succeeded in attacking German units and blowing up trains. They received heavy support from Russia, as the heads of the unit had strong ties to the Russian military. They also took revenge on a Polish family that had shot the Jews they were hiding, however the location of this incident is not known.

Jewish doctor Michael Temchin was a commander in the Armia Ludowa, a leftist underground organization in Poland. His unit, which consisted of both Jews and non-Jews, was active around Krasnik, Lublin district. They planned to rescue Jews from the Krasnik Ghetto. However those inside the Ghetto were hesitant to allow the partisans to act, and in one night the entire Krasnik Ghetto was wiped out with few managing to survive or escape.

A significant number of Jews reached important positions in the Polish partisan movement, especially in Units on the left, the AL, and the Socialist Fighting Organization. The Commander of the largest Partisan Battalion in Generalgouvernement territory was the Jewish Officer, Alexander Skotnicki (Captain Zemsta), who was included among the Armia Ludowa's renowned organizers list.

General Rola-Zimierski, the commander of the Armia Ludowa, declared at a meeting of the Polish National Assembly on the 2nd of January 1946: "Jewish soldiers fought against the occupation forces with much devotion and courage. They were valiant fighters and very often great heroes" and in his letter to the Organization of Jewish Partisans (F.P.O.), the general wrote: "Among the Jews who remained alive there were thousands who went into the woods to fight with arms, and fought together with their Polish partisan comrades against the common enemy."

This is a list of the Jewish partisans who operated in the Parczew / Wlodawa areas during the Holocaust. Names are approximations based on various sources.
Many of the names are Polish proper names, so Jozef = Josef = Joe and Rojza = Rosa = Rose. Other names are Yiddish or Hebrew names, so
Yaakov = Jakub = Jacob and Chana = Hanka = Hannah. To add a name to this list, please contact us.




KAMIONKA PARTISANS
Kamionka Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Frank Blaichman, leader
Kamionka, Dec. 11, 1922New YorkPhotos available; testimony available
Wolf Glaicher*** Tarnobrzeg, 1912MurderedFought in Pulawy area with Armia Ludowa forces
Efraim LewinKamionka, 1917Died in Frankfurt, GermanyChanged his name to Efraim Lewinski
Usher LewinKamionkaMurdered 1943-1946
Hershel Herszman?Murdered Jan. 31, 1943
Josef HerszmanStaroscinMurdered in 1943Note: Not the same Herszman who survived Sobibor
Jusek Herszman1927?
Leon Herszman??
Max Jenier??
Jankiel Klerer, co-leaderKamionka?Murdered in 1943Discussed in: "Resistance: Teen Partisans and Resisters" by Dvorson
Blimka LambergKamionkaMurdered Jan. 31, 1943
Mendel LambergKamionka?
Abram RaisKamionka?Murdered Jan. 31, 1943
Ester RaisKamionka?Murdered Jan. 31, 1943
Moshe Sznajderman1917Died December 14, 2000 in Israel
(unknown) Sztengel??
Fiszel WachholderKamionka?Died March 17, 1973 in Israel
Shabse (unknown)?Murdered Jan. 31, 1943
Simcha (unknown)??




EMILIA PLATER GROUP
Emilia Plater Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
(unknown) Cygan (Cigan)?Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora
Wladek Edelsztejn (Edelstein)?Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora
Dawid EtingerMarkuszowMurdered in 1943
Adam FiszbeinMarkuszow?, 1916Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora
Josef FiszbeinMarkuszow?, 1923Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora
Bronislawa Garbarz (Garbacz)Komarowka PodlaskaIsrael?
Szyja Goldberg Lublin, 1900Died in IsraelTestimony available
Chil GothelfMarkuszow, ~1915 Australia
Ita GothelfMarkuszow, 1919?
Yaakov Gotthelf (Gothelf)Markuszow, 1919?Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora
Yerucham Gotthelf (Gothelf)MarkuszowMurdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora
Josef Iberklejd (Iberkleid) |||GarbowMurdered 1942-1945
Emil Shmuel Jegier (Jaeger)***, commander1914Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora
Mordechai Kerschenbaum (Kerszenbaum) MarkuszowMurdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa GoraPhoto available
Marcin Kirszenblat1923Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora
Mietek Kirszenblat1911Australia
Martin KirszenbojmMarkuszowMurdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa GoraPhotos available
Szmuel LaksMarkuszowDied January 27, 1988 in Israel
Wladek "Wolf" LaksMarkuszowMurdered in 1943
Chaja LotersteinMarkuszow??
Michael LotersteinMarkuszow, 1924?Photo available
Szymon MalinowskiLomza??Fought near Trawniki
Jusiek Jerzy Marcinek?France
(unknown) MikoiRussiaMurdered
Berl MitelbergLublin?Murdered 1944-1946Photo available; Escaped from Majdanek Concentration Camp
Szlomo MorelGarbow, 1919Died in 2007 in IsraelFalsely accused of war crimes by Polish gov't.
Yitzchak MorelGarbowMurdered in 1943
Moshe Pelz (Marcin Pelc)Markuszow, 1917?Previously in the Polish army
Simon RabinerMarkuszowMurdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa GoraPhotos available
Wladek Zeev Rak |||Warsaw, June 1, 1923?aka Moshe Rok; Photo available
Jan RykMarkuszow/Kurow, Feb. 11, 1917?
Isser Israel Rosenberg, commander1919Killed by accident in 1943
Bella RubinsteinMarkuszow??
Blimka RubinsteinMarkuszow??Photo available
Dawid RubinsteinMarkuszow??
Sever Shmuel Rubinstein Markuszow?New YorkPhoto available
(unknown) TolkaKharkiv, UkraineMurdered
Hanka Tomalewicz??
Wladek Tomalewicz??
Stefan Tuman?Brazil?
Jankiel Waingarten***Ostrolenka, 1907Murdered in March, 1944
Dora Wassersztrum (Wasserstrom)Markuszow?, 1924?
Dawid WeingartenMarkuszow?Israel
Natan Westelsznajder (Westschneider)Markuszow, 1923Israel
Pinkus Ziskind***Dubno, 1912Died in 1976 in IsraelLater fought with the Armia Ludowa
Liebl from MarkuszowMarkuszowMurdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora
Shimon (unknown)?Kfar Saba, Israel



Samuel "Mietek" Gruber, partisan leader.

MIETEK (KOZIETULSKI) PARTISANS
Mietek (Kozietulski) Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
(unknown) Andrejew (Andreiov)?Murdered in 1943-1944
Boris Dov Berezin***Niedzwiedzica, 1915Israelaka Mikolai Berezin; Testimony available (in Yiddish)
Mark Marian Dworecki (Dvoretsky)?Died 1945-1947 in GermanyPhoto available; was in charge of making bombs
Icek Eisenberg (Ajzenberg)MarkuszowMurdered 1943-1945
Salomon "Shlomo" Ejsenberg (Eisenberg) Markuszow, 1916IsraelPhoto available; nicknamed Iron ("Zelaszny") Eisenberg
Stefan Finkiel (Finkel)***Lithuania, 1915?Photos available; changed his name to Sam Finkel
Roman Fiszer***Warsaw?Died in Tel Aviv, IsraelMarried a woman named Tzesia; fought in the Warsaw Ghetto
(unknown) Furman?Killed by accident 1943-1945
Szloma GoldwasserMarkuszowMurdered 1943-1944
Aron GotzJune 2, 1918Died in March, 1972 in St. Louis, MissouriPhoto available
Shmuel Mietec Gruber***, commanderPidhaitsi (Podhajce), 1913USAChanged his name to Samuel Gruber; video testimony available
Adam Halpern |||Warsaw?, 1918Israel
(unknown) Kaganowicz***?Murdered before 1943
Geniek Lipman??
(unknown) Maczin??
(unknown) Matros??
Jusek Piasecki (Pisacki)BystrzejowiceMurdered in 1945
Janek Jankiel Rok |||Warsaw?, 1918?
Josef Rok |||Warsaw?, 1914?
Henryk Schongod (Haim Szengut)Chocznia, 1914Murdered 1944-1945Polish army vet.; Imprisoned at Stalag VB & Stalag XIIIA
Josef Schongod (Szengut)??
Shmuel Toper (Topper)??
Vladimir Wolodia Walach?Murdered
Fabian Wolstein*** Stanislawow, 1917Murdered?aka Wladyslaw Wolsztajn; photo available; also imprisoned at Altengrabow
(unknown) Zajfer (Zejfer)BrzezanyMurdered 1943-1945
Hanka Zelman |||Warsaw, 1924Tel Aviv, Israel



Back row, from left: Harold Werner, Symcha Barbanel, Dora Grynszpan, Abram Grynszpan, Yankel Barbanel
from Dubeczno (Vuyo); front, from left: Shienka from Wlodawa, Abram the Patzan, Chanina Henry Barbanel.
Note: In every other place this photo appears, the man at top right is identified as Velvele the Patzan.
I have confirmed that this is not correct information. It is is Yankel "Vuyo" Barbanel.

WLODAWA PARTISANS
Wlodawa Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Chaim Ajzen Hrubieszow, 1923AustraliaChanged his name to Henry Steel; photo available; testimony available
Chaim BarbanelWlodawaMurdered in 1943
Chanina BarbanelMarianka, 1922New JerseyChanged his name to Henry Barbanel; photos available; testimony available
Chanche BarbanelWlodawa?
Gedalia "Geniek" BarbanelWlodawa, 1926?
Motel BarbanelWlodawa, 1907Died in 1991 in USARachmiel Barbanel's brother
Shimon "Sam" BarbanelMarianka, 1918MassachusettsNicknamed Simcha from Marianka; Photo available
Yankel Barbanel (())Dubeczno, 1925?Changed his name to Jack Barbanel; nicknamed "Vuyo"; Photo available
Yosel BarbanelMariankaMurdered in 1943-1945Brother of Simcha and Chanina; their father was Rachmiel
Bollek BeckermanWlodawa, 1924Toronto, CanadaChanged his name to Bob Becker
Asalke "Ilke" BorensztejnWlodawaMurdered in 1943
Chaska BrojsblatWlodawa, 1925FloridaBecame Chasia Lederman; testimony available
Dawid Cin (())Wlodawa, 1921IsraelAlso spelled: David Tzinn
Moshe Cyn (Cin)WlodawaDied Dec., 1988 in Montreal
Nasan CynWlodawa?Murdered
Majer Derish?Died in Munich, Germany
Szymon Shimlay ErlichWlodawa, 1925IsraelPhoto available; fought with the Molotova partisans
Moshe FarbmanWlodawa?
Moshe "Mishke" FeldmanPinsk, 1917Committed suicide in 1943
Isralke "Srulke" Fiszman (Fishbein?)WlodawaMurdered 1942-1944
Chaim Fiszman (())WlodawaMurdered 1943-1944Nicknamed Chaim Tancer ("dancer")
Manya FriedmanWarsawMurdered 1943-1944Photo available
Shmuel FriedmanWarsawMurdered 1942-1943
Sasha Ganz1903Died in 1976 in Florida
Lovka Leon GildermanUkraine, 1911 IsraelChanged his name to Leon Czarnobrodzki; photo available; later joined
the Molotova partisans
Srulka GlincmanWlodawa, 1918Died in 2013 in New Jersey
Yankale GlincmanWlodawa, May 30, 1930Died in 1984 in New Jerseyaka Jack Glincman; testimony available
Yuschka GlincmanWlodawa, 1913Died in 1999 in Toronto, CanadaPhoto available
Mordechai Greenwald (Grinwald)AdampolIsrael
Chaim HindelLodzKilled by accident before 1945
Bolek Huberman?Frankfurt, Germany
Zeev Wolf JungsztajnZamosc, 1935?
Josef KahanWlodawaToronto, CanadaPhoto available
Symcha KahanWlodawa, 1920 Haifa, Israel
Nachum KnopfmacherWlodawa, 1919Israel
Michael KnopfmacherWlodawa, Dec. 10, 1926Haifa, IsraelChanged his name to Michael Kaftori; nicknamed Moshe
from Kolacze; video testimony available (Hebrew)
Pesia Kreis Knopfmacher (()) Wlodawa, 1922IsraelAlso called Perla; Photo available; testimony available
Chawa KotParczewMurdered before 1946
Chuna Kot (())Uhnin, 1919Murdered in 1943
Lejb KotParczew, 1915Died in 1996 in Israel
Avigdor LedermanWlodawa, 1898IsraelFought with the Molotova partisans
Srulke LedermanWlodawa, May 3, 1935Died August, 1988 in BC, CanadaChanged his name to Samuel Lederman; testimony available
Yankele Lederman Wlodawa, 1927Died in 2003 in British ColumbiaChanged his name to Jack Lederman
Leon Lemberger LukowskiWlodawa, 1922Israel
Abraham LebenbaumParczewIsraelLater joined the Molotova partisans
Moshe Lichtenberg, leaderWlodawa, ~1917Murdered in 1943Photo available
Sara LustigmanWlodawa, 1924IsraelBecame Sara Omolinski
Leonid Leon Nemzer***, co-leader1912 Murdered?Previously in the Polish army; joined the Molotova partisans
Abram "Abie" PomerancWyryki, 1932Died in 2008 in New JerseyPhoto available
Cyla PomerancWyryki, March 15, 1926New YorkMarried Frank Blaichman; Became Cesia Blaichman
Hanka Pomeranc1917USA
Jurek PomerancWyryki, 1926USAPhoto available
Shaja Pomeranc1920 ?Later fought with the Ponamorenko partisans
Motel Rabinowitz (Rabinowich)1915?Later fought with the Molotova partisans; Photo available
Motel Rozenberg (()), co-leaderWlodawaMurdered in 1943
Fajga RosenblumZamolodycze, 1926?
Mendel RosenblumZamolodyczeMurdered in 1943
Zelik RosenblumZamolodyczeMurdered in 1943
Isaac Rotenberg*Wlodawa, 1925Murdered in 1994 in IsraelPhotos available; Murdered by 2 non-Jews with an axe in 1994
Israel RotenbergWlodawaMurderedPhoto available
Moshe RotsteinWarsaw?Nicknamed Moniek Rotstein
Unknown Sheftel (Szeftel)Wlodawa?
Alexander "Sasha" Shienka (())WlodawaIsraelPhotos available; last name also spelled Shenko, Shienko, Shenka
Moshe Spiewak (Siwak/Szywak) (())Wlodawa??
Baruch Sznajderman??
Leon Szporer (Shporer)Skorodnica?, 1917Montreal, CanadaPhoto available
Wigdor SzporerSkorodnica?, 1915Montreal, CanadaPhoto available
Shmuel Sztul (Stal/Stoll/Stul/Stuhl)Wlodawa, March 11, 1919Venezuela?Photo available
Tema Kreis Turkienic (())Wlodawa, 1924Israel?Became Tamara Turkieniec; Photo available
Bebale Weisman (())Marianka, ~1933Murdered in 1944
Chaim Wajsman (Weisman) (())Marianka?Photo available
Chaim Wolf***Wlodawa??
Ludwik WurcelmanLukow, 1925 ?Later fought with the Molotova partisans
Hershel ZimmermanGorzkow, 1918Died in 1990 in New JerseyChanged his name to Harold Werner; photo available; testimony available
David from HolaHolaMurdered in 1943
David from TurnoTurnoLikely murderedCalled "David Turno"; Jewish land owner
Chazan Lejb (Leib)~1922Likely murderedOrphaned cantor from Lublin yeshiva
Hershel from KodeniecKodeniecLikely murdered
Moshe from KodeniecKodeniecMurdered in 1943 near Glebokie
Isa from HolaHolaMurdered in 1943
Mishka?Murdered in 1943-1944Escaped Prisoner of War
Moshe the Butcher (())Wlodawa?Nicknamed Moshe Peshalis (son of Pesia); photo available
Moshe Yoel from HolaHolaMurdered in 1943
Nuchem from TurnoTurno, ~1922Likely murdered
Pearl from HolaHolaMurdered in 1943
Vashka the RussianRussiaMurdered 1943Non-Jew
Yankel from WarsawWarsaw?Nephew of Dawid Turno
Yankel from KodeniecKodeniecLikely murdered
Yefim (Yosel) from KodeniecKodeniecLikely murderedCousin of Yankel from Kodeniec
Itzik10 year old partisan?Later joined the Soviet partisans




Those below listed with a @ after their names also fought with the Wlodawa partisans, listed above. There was significant overlap between the two groups.

HOLOD #2 (CHIL) PARTISANS
Holod Battalion #2 (Chil) Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Jakub Ajnszpann (Ejnszpann) WlodawaIsrael?
Hannah Berkowitz@Skorodnica, Oct. 10, 1910FloridaTestimony available
Hershel Berkowitz@ Skorodnica?Photo available
Shaindel "Sonia" BernhardKomarowka PodlaskaCanadaBecame Sonia Wajstaub
Szymek Bernhard (Berhardt)Komarowka Podlaska, Nov. 20, 1924Winnipeg, CanadaChanged his name to Simon Berchard
Hinda Birenbaum??
Chaim Eliezar Blumenkranz ?Murdered
Abraham Cholomski Zaliszcze?
Chancia Cholomski Zaliszcze?
Rostka Duman Cholomski@ZaliszczeNew York Became Rose Holm; photo available
Yurek Cholomsky@ZaliszczeDied in 2003 in New YorkChanged his name to Joe Holm; photos available
Abram CukierYekaterinburg, 1920USA?
Josef Jusiek Cynowiec***Pinsk, 1916Haifa, IsraelMarried a Jewish partisan named Irka
Herszek Cymerman (Zimmerman)Josefow, 1917?
Abram Czarny1915?
Berko Ekhauz (Eckhauz)Parczew?
Boruch "Butchke" ElbaumParczew, 1901Died in SwedenOccupation: surgeon
Edek Elbaum Parczew, 1916SwedenAlso called Ela Elbaum
Chaim Engel*Lodz/Brudzew, 1916Died in 2003 in Branford, CTVideo testimony available
Marcus ErdepelKonskowola, 1910Died in 1973 in IsraelHebrew name: Mordechai Erdepel
Andre Etman
Parczew, Sept. 2, 1935New YorkTestimony available
Judka Yehuda Fajgenbaum1927?Photo available
Chaim Lonka Feferkorn@Parczew, 1921IsraelPhotos available
Ada Fiszer*Jaroslaw/Wieliczka, Jan. 1, 1915IsraelMarried Jitschak Lichtman; photo available; testimony available
David Friedman (())Sosnowica?Nicknamed "David the Tall One from Sosnowica"
Fajga Zipora FrydmanParczew, ~1930IsraelBecame Zipora Koren; Photo available
Ignacy Yitzchak Frymer1908?
Hilda GimpelIzbica Kujowska, 1917USA Became Hilda Eisen; photo available; testimony available
Leon GitermanLutowisko, Nov. 16, 1914 ?
Jakub Glazer1914?
Catharina "Kitty" Gokkes*The Hague, Sept. 30, 1925Died of typhus on Sept. 20, 1944Called Cathy; tall with red hair; Photo available
Mordechai Goldfarb*Piaski Luterskie, March 15, 1920 Died June 8, 1984 in Haifa, IsraelPhotos available
Dawid Goldberg??
Zygmunt Goldman1915?
Sam Goldwasser@Parczew, 1926Montreal, CanadaNicknamed "Polimiot"; photos available
Leon Greenblatt GrimblovskyStary OrzechowIsraelPhoto available; testimony available (in Hebrew)
Abram Grynszpan@ Sosnowica, 1913BrazilPhoto available
Dora Lask Grynszpan@ Lodz, Jan. 20, 1922BrazilPhoto available; testimony available
Yechiel "Chil" Grynszpan@, commander Sosnowica, July 6, 1916BrazilPhotos available; testimony available
Aryeh Helfgot***1916IsraelLeader of partisan group of eight fighters
Mietek Himelblat (Kimmelblat)Lublin?, 1906?
Ella HipszmanWarsaw, Dec. 8, 1932MassachusettsTestimony available
Yankel Jacob HolenderWlodawa?
Janek Jankiel HonigsblumLubartow?, 1916?
Srul Jakubowicz??
Aron Kodenzak?Murdered in 1943 near Glebokie
Itzhak KornParczew/Ostrow LubelskiMurdered
Sucha KornParczewIsrael
Zalman KornParczewMurdered in 1945Called Zalman from Parczew
Zygmunt Korn1919?
Akiba KupermanParczew, 1914IsraelPhoto available
Jankiel Kupersztajn (Kupersztejn)Parczew, 1911?
Liba Kupersztajn Parczew?
K. Kupersztajn ??
Yehuda "Leon" Lerner*Warsaw, 1926Died Dec. 7, 2007 in IsraelNicknamed "Atleta"; photos available
Icek Lerer 1926?
Simcha LewinsonSosnowicaMurdered
Itzchak Lichtman*Zolkiewka, Dec. 10, 1908IsraelPhotos available
Velval "Wladek" Litwak@Sosnowica, 1923BrazilChanged his name to Zeev Litwak; nicknamed
Velvale the Patzan^; testimony available
Aslek? Margulies*Zyrardow, 1921Died in 1984 in Israelaka Abraham Margulies; photo available
Abraham MilechParczew, 1917Canada
David Milech Parczew, 1928Died in 2002 in Canada
Moshe Milech ParczewCanada
Cypora Miller@Holowno?, 1922?
Genia Milsztajn (Millstein)Lublin, 1919?
Junak Milsztajn (Millstein)Serock, 1925Israelaka Yehuda Millstein; photo available
Naum Plotnicki*Belarus, 1913Died in IsraelPhotos available; changed his name to Chaim Plotnikow
Josef Pankenfeld (Pomkienfeld)??
Szaja Prikarn (Prikon)@1915?
Binyamin Raywer ??
Josef Reznik***Grodno, 1912Israel
Irena Robaerek (Robaenek)1923?
Yefim RolnikKharkov, Jan. 15, 1915FloridaChanged his name to Joe Rolnik; testimony available
Sewer Rosen (Rozen)Kurow, 1922Died in Raciborz, Poland
Hershel Rubenstein (Rubensztejn) ||| @WarsawMurdered in 1944-1945Photo available; nicknamed The Commisar
Josef RubinParczew, Sept. 25, 1930FloridaTestimony available
Abram RubinsteinZahajki, 1927-1930?Photo available; nicknamed Abram the Patzan^
Bronislawa RubinsteinWlodawa, Jan. 27, 1927Died in 2013 in Los AngelesBecame Bronia Rubinstein; married Sol
Dudkin Dawid RubinsteinZahajki (Zahaika), 1919DetroitChanged his name to David Russell
Itzik RubinsteinZahajkiMurdered?
Lewek RubinsteinZahajki, 1922Murdered?
Szlema "Senka" RubinsteinZahajki, Jun. 26, 1915Died in 2011 in in Los AngelesChanged his name to Sol Rubinstein
Josef Ruchelsman (Reishelsman)Jlawa/Olsztyn, 1915Israel?
Orsula Stern-Buchheim*Essen, Aug. 28, 1928Died in 1985 in Ashdod, IsraelBecame Ilana Safran; photos available
Itsak SuchowolskiParczew, Oct. 5, 1922Died Sept., 2010 in IllinoisChanged his name to Irving Wolsk; testimony available
Bernard Szwarc (Schwartz)***Ustrzyki, 1904?
Szloma SzwarczHrubieszow, 1923Israel
Henryk Szyfenbauer (Haim Szupenbir)??
Helena Szteinwawe (Steinwave)1923?
Boris Taborinsky*Slonim, 1917Russia or IsraelLater joined Soviet partisans
David TempyParczew, 1904Murdered in 1946 in Parczew
Mindla TorbinerMay 16, 1916Died in 2005 in CanadaBecame Mindel Shupak
Israel "Srulke" Trager*Chelm, 1906Died in 1969 in IsraelPhotos available here and here
Mendel Turbiner (Torbiner)Parczew?, 1915Murdered in 1946 in Parczew
Reuven Turbiner?Murdered in 1943 near Glebokie
Henryk Haim Weinstein1925?
Ita Wertman1910?
Selma Wijnberg*Zwolle, May 15, 1922Branford, CTBecame Selma Engel; photos available
Abram Winderbaum Lomazy, May 8, 1923FloridaChanged his name to Adam Winder; video testimony available;
later fought with Skotniki's AL forces
Lyowa ZitzmanParczewIsraelChanged his name to Leon Zitzman
Abram Zisman (Zysman) Parczew, 1903Murdered in 1946 in ParczewNicknamed Abram Bochian
Abram from ZmiarkaZmiarka?
Dennis from SosnowicaSosnowicaMurdered in 1943
Donachy from ZahajkiZahajki?Nickname of a woman at the Tabor camp site
Eli from ParczewParczewMurdered
Harry from WarsawWarsaw?
Nisan from SosnowicaSosnowica?
Shainche from Ostrow Ostrow Lubelski Died of illness in 1943
Shmuel from HolownoHolowno?



Former Soviet prisoners of war -- Jews who were in Sobibor and who had originated in Russia.
A gathering in memory of the uprising. Pictured (left to right): Jefim Litwinowsky, Arkady Wayspapir,
Alexander Pechersky, Alexei Waytzen, Nahum Plotnitsky, Simeon Rozenfeld.


SOVIET PARTISANS
Soviet Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Lipa Lipman Aronowicz***Parczew, Jan. 5, 1917IsraelFought with Krasni partisans led by Abramowitz
Moshe Bahir*Plock, July 19, 1927 Died Nov., 2002 in IsraelFought in Kovpak's unit
Jacob Biskubicz*Hrubieszow, March 17, 1926Ramat Gan, Israel Photos available; fought with Stefan Kaplun's unit in Polesie
Mordko Cholomski ZaliszczeNew York Changed his name to Morris Holm
Boris Cibulskiy*Ukraine, 1907-1910Murdered 1943-1944
Grisha EdelsteinKalisz?Nicknamed Grishka from Kiev?
Misha EdelsteinKaliszMurdered 1945-1946Memorial stone at Rivne, Ukraine
Aleksander Fedorov Dnipropetrovsk, 1901Died in 1989 in Kiev Commanded the Chernigov partisan unit
Hela Felenbaum*Lublin, Nov. 25, 1925Died 1988 in Gedera, IsraelBecame Hela Weiss; photos available
Dov Freiberg*Warsaw, 1927Died in 2008 in Israel
Yaakov Garbow??
Zyndel Honigman*Kiev, April 10, 1910Died in 1989 in New JerseyPhotos available; Cousin of Harold Werner
Mordechai Kalmanowicz??
Fiodor KovalevRussia?Leader of the Pushkin group partisans
Sydir KovpakKharkov, 1887Died in 1967Non-Jew
Yankale LedermanWlodawa, 1920FloridaTestimony available; changed his name to Jack Lederman
Chaim Litwinowski*Russia, 1911Died in 1994 in Soviet UnionPhotos available here and here
Moshe ManosDubrovitsa, Nov. 17, 1926Murdered March 29, 1943
Maksim Misyura Russia?Non-Jew; photo available; led group of Jews from Sarnik,
Dabrowica, Wlodimierzec; fought with Voroshilov battalion
Shmuel OszlakZelechowMurdered Feb. 12, 1944Fought with the Alekseyev partisans
Alexander Petsjerski*Kremenets, 1909Died 1990 in Rostov-on-Don, Soviet UnionPhotos available; changed his name to Sasha Pechersky
(unknown) Plaszkowski*?MurderedFought in Kovpak's unit
Janek PomerancWyrykiNew YorkChanged his name to Jack Pomeranc; photos available
Pasha ReichmanRussia, 1917Died in 2005 in IsraelChanged his name to Itzchak Avidov; fought in Kovpak's unit
Chaim RosensonKurowMurderedPhoto available
Sana RosensonKurowIsraelPhoto available
Alexander Shubayev*BelarusMurdered 1943-1945Killed Nazi Sobibor cammander Johann Niemann with an axe
David Sierczuk* (Sirczuk/Serchuk)Chelm, 1920?Photo available; fought with Shubetidze brigade
(unknown) Singer or Zinger***?Murdered 1943-1946Fought with Krasni partisans led by Abramowitz
Zvi Sobelman*?Died in 1948 near LatrunFought in Kovpak's unit
Josef Sterdyner***Legionowo Israel
Shmuel SzmajznerPulawy, March 13, 1927Died on March 3, 1989 in Goiania, BrazilChanged his name to Stanislaw Smajzner; Photos available
Kalman TeitelbaumKoroplow, 1922Died in 1985 in Ashdod, IsraelChanged his name to Zdiszek Teitelbaum;
fought with the Krokopyuk group
Arkady Wajspapir*Ukraine, 1921Russiaaka Arkadii Weisspapier; video testimony available
Kalman Wewryk*Chelm, 1906CanadaPhoto available; testimony available
Sonia Wolcowska (Volkoviskaia)Russia?, 1923?Fought with the October (Oktiabr) partisans



The People's Army (Armia Ludowa, known as Gwardia Ludowa or "The People's Guard") was one of the two main military
organizations of the Polish underground. Jewish partisan Dr. Temczyn is in this photo with General Michal "Rola" Zymierski (top,
center) of the Armia Ludowa. Top, from left: Jan Czechowicz, Stanislaw Kotek-Agroszewski, Zymierski, Grab Widerkowski,
Stanislaw Szot. Bottom, from left Waclaw Czyzewski, Cien, Dr. Michael Temczyn. Photo from 1944 in Parczew.


General Zemsta, a Jewish commander of the A.L. forces.


A group of fighters from the Polish underground "Armia Ludowa" in the Krasnik area, 1944.

ARMIA LUDOWA PARTISANS
Armia Ludowa Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Staszek Bialek??Non-Jew
Leon Bielski??Fought with the Janowski partisans
Mikolaj Demko, generalLodz, 1913Died in 1986 in PolandPartisan name: Mietek Moczar; Non-Jew
Pawel Dubek??Non-Jew
Ignacy FarbsteinParczew, May 5, 1920USA Changed his name to Isadore Farbstein; photo available; testimony available;
Fought with Grynszpan's group and Skotnicki's AL forces
Eliezer Lejzor GinsbergUstilugDrowned on Dec. 5, 1944Fought with Skotnicki's AL partisans
Gerszon Gutman |||, commander Lomza, 1916Died in 1979 in WarsawChanged his name to Gustaw Alef-Bolkowiak; photos available
Stefan Kaminsky??Partisan name: Geniek Kaminsky; Non-Jew
Sidor Karziesz??Non-Jew
Jan HolodWlodawa areaMurdered in 1944Partisan name: Vanka Kirkpiczny (Kirpicznik); Non-Jew
Leon Kasman, commander??Fought with the Janowski partisans
Stanislaw Jerzy LecLviv, 1909Died in 1966 in Warsaw
Geniek Maksula??Non-Jew
Wictor Margulis?Israelaka Stanislaw Sierpinski; photos available
Leon MarzentaUkraine?Non-Jew
Benjamin MandelkernParczew, 1916Ontario, CanadaFought with the Armia Krajowa
Konstanty Mastalerz1893Died in 1986 in PolandNon-Jew
Mikolaj Meluch (Mielich/Milicz)Uhnin?Nicknamed Kolka; Non-Jew and Anti-Semite
Ruth Wanda Michalska??Fought with the Janowski group
Abraham Miller??Fought with Skotnicki's AL forces
Michael Rola-Zymierski, generalKrakow, 1890Died in 1989 in PolandNon-Jew
Jakob RotenbergWlodawa, July 15, 1924Died in Australiaaka Jakob Friedmann; fought in Janowski group; testimony available
Bronia Schumacher?United StatesFought with the Janowski partisans
Aleksander Skotnicki (Skutnitzki), commanderLvovMurdered in May, 1944Nicknamed General Zemsta ("revenge"); photo available
Jankiel SukmanKrasnik, 1918Murdered in 1943
Mischa StahlhammerKrasnik, Oct. 16, 1923SwedenPhoto available; testimony available
Abraham Szejner (Schoener)Starachowice, Nov. 12, 1919?aka Avraham Scheiner; photo available
Mordechai SzlajcherBilgorajMurdered?Photo available
Moses Michael Temchin (Temczyn)Pinsk, 1909Died in 1990 in New YorkNicknamed Znachor ("The Witch Doctor"); testimony available; photo available
Jan Wojtovitcz, captain??Non-Jew
Franciszek Wolinski, captain Przypisowka, 1918 Died in 1947 in PolandNon-Jew
Wacek Wymolski??Non-Jew
Adek from PotokPotokMurdered in 1945
Dudek from OtwockOtwock (Warsaw)Murdered in 1944
Roman the LieutenantDonetsk??Jewish fighter in Janowski unit


HRUBIESZOW PARTISANS
Hrubieszow Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Szloma BodenChelm, Nov. 11, 1918Murdered before 1945Photo available
Julek BrandHrubieszow, 1906Murdered before 1945Photo available
Szloma BrandHrubieszow, July 1911IsraelPhoto available; Fought with the partisans in Vilna
Jurek CukierWarsaw, Dec. 23, 1923Israelaka Joel Cuker; photo available
Bertold DobrinGermany, 1897Murdered Nov. 5, 1943 at Poniatowa
Saul DobuchnaWarsaw, 1923Murdered September 1942Photo available
Dawid EhrlichGrabowiec?Murdered
Simcha Estik (Astyk)Grabowiec?Murdered
Kalman FirsztHrubieszowKilled Dec. 7 1943 in Wolyn
Hawa Follman Bialystok, Nov. 20, 1919Died on May 26, 1996 in IsraelBecame Chaika Grossman; photos available
Asher FrenkelWarsaw, 1901Murdered in 1942 in HrubieszowPhoto available
Aron FrumerHrubieszow, 1920Killed in 1942 in Hrubieszow
Gedalia GershuniBialystok, 1914Murdered August 1942
Chaim Haus (Hausz)Warsaw, 1920Murdered in 1944 at MajdanekPhoto available
Jakub Jankiel KacMogielnica, 1917Murdered
Israel KampnerKalisz, 1923Murdered near Hrubieszow
Franka KirszenbojmHrubieszow?
Felek LanglebenWarsawMurdered near ZamoscPhoto available
Dina LewinLodz, 1923Murdered near Hrubieszow
Ida Malkin ||| ?Murdered in 1943-1946
Moshe Micflikier (Mitzflicker)Chelm, April 1, 1894Died in Israel in 1964Photo available
Yochanan MorgenszternZamosc, 1905Murdered May 6, 1943
Yitzhak NozicWarsaw, 1920Murdered September 1942Photo available
Abraham PinkelsztejnWarsaw, 1920Murdered near Hrubieszow
Frumka Plotnicka ~1914Murdered on Aug. 3, 1943 in BedzinPhoto available
Moniek Ringwirc (Rajngewirc)Radomsk, 1916Murdered in 1942 in HrubieszowPhoto available; his girlfriend was Pesia Furmanowicz
Zindl Zenik Reiber SzczebrzeszynSurvivedFought near Izbica
Henryk Jechiel Rozen?Murdered near Hrubieszow
Malka RubGrabowiec?Murdered
Moshe Rubinczyk (Rubinchyk)Belarus, 1914Murdered Sept. 3, 1942Photo available
Ruth SzklarWarsaw, ~1923Murdered near HrubieszowPhoto available
Moshe Szpaszyk (Shpashek)WarsawMurdered near HrubieszowPhoto available
Chana SzyslerGrabowiec?Murdered
Szyfra SzyslerGrabowiec?Murdered
Moses Michael TemchinPinsk, 1909Died in 1990 in New YorkFought in the area of Hrubieszow; see "Armia Ludowa" above
(unknown) Wajcer/Wicer/WycerHrubieszow?Murdered in route to base in Werbkowice
Chaim Eliezer WarmanKurow, 1915Murdered in 1943-1946Photo available
Israel ZelcerZdolbrinow, 1913Executed in September, 1942


Ben Kamm, partisan responsible for helping Jews escape from the Janow Lubelski Ghetto.

JANOW LUBELSKI / KRASNIK PARTISANS
Janow / Krasnik Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Unknown Bleicher (Blaicher) ??.
Abraham "Adolf" Bron or Braun ?MurderedLeader of the Braun partisans
Moshe Braun ??Participated in a group near Bychawa
Hersz Brener (Brenner) KrasnikIsraelFought with Adolf Braun's group
Lejba Brener Krasnik, 1926?aka Leon Brener; Fought with Eliezar Wurman's group
(unknown) Ciencow??Non-Jew; Led a group of Russian partisans near Krasnik
Moshe Ehrlich***Nowy Targ, 1920AustraliaParticipated in a group near Bychawa
Leon Feldhendler* Zolkiewka, 1910Murdered in 1945 in Lublin.
Edward Forst or Forest ?Murdered 1943-1944Leader of the Berek Joselewicz partisans
Yaacov Freitag ?Murdered 1943-1944.
Josef Fuks Warsaw, 1923Died in 2012 in New YorkChanged his name to Joseph Fox; fought near Zdzilowice
Baruch Goldscher Lomazy, 1916USAFought with Adolf Braun's group
Chaim Hirszman Janow Lubelski, Oct. 24, 1912Murdered in 1945Belzec escapee
Ben Kamm Warsaw, March 21, 1921Died Nov. 8, 2010Helped free 600 people from the Janow Lubelski Ghetto
Unknown Karnischauer Czechloslovakia?.
Ivan Kasian ??.
Grzegorz Korczynski, commander 1915Died in 1971 in AlgeriaNon-Jew and Anti-Semite
Yehoshua Kleiman ?Murdered.
Reuven Pintel ?Murdered 1943-1944.
(unknown) Prohor or Prochors Russia?Non-Jew who fought with Adolf Braun's group
Henoch Prozanski Janow Lubelski, 1923Died in 1986 in IsraelPhoto available
Unknown Schnabel Czechloslovakia, 1903?Non-Jew
Josef Shapiro ?Murdered 1943-1944.
Unknown Silberman Czechloslovakia?.
Mordechai Sternblitz ??Participated in a group near Bychawa
Jan Szelubski Lithuania, March 25, 1916Died in 1985 in Israel.
Lejzor Wurman Kurow, 1915Murdered July, 1944Led a partisan group in the Rzecice forests
Hersh Zysmilch Tarnogrod IsraelFought with Adolf Braun's group

RADZYN PODLASKI PARTISANS
Radzyn Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Moshe Agmon ??
Yitzchak KlejnmanRadzyn Podlaski?
Liebl Lev ?Murdered in 1943
Avremele Pontsak (Ponczak)??
Berel Pontsak (Ponczak)??
Gershon Henich Pontsak (Ponczak)?Murdered at Oswiecim or Czemierniki
Lejb Pontsak (Ponczak)??
Lejzor Pontsak (Ponczak)?Murdered in 1942
Yaakov Pontsak (Ponczak)??
Dinah Rosewald ??
Unknown Tunkelszwarcz??



Partisans who previously escaped from Sobibor. Includes Shmuel Szmajzner (back, 2nd from left), Abram Kohn
(2nd row, far right), Kalman Wewryk (2nd row, second from right) and others not identified.

MISCELLANEOUS PARTISANS
Miscellaneous Lublin Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Ludka Arbetsman |||?Died 1943-1946 in Lublin
Eliezer BartHrubieszow, 1915USAFought in Vilna, outside of Lublin district
Josef Cukierman*Kurow, May 26, 1930Died in 1963 in New JerseyPhotos available
Jan KarskiLodz, 1914 Died in 2000 in PolandNon-Jew; witnessed Izbica to testify to Shoah atrocities
Hersch KlajnmannLublin, ~1924Murdered circa 1942Photo available
Jakow Klaper (Klapper)Lublin, 1916Murdered?
Moshe Merensztajn (Merenstein)*Gorzkow, 1899Died in 1985 in Queens, New York
Szmul ZygielbojmBorowica, 1895Committed suicide in May, 1943
Cwi Hersz ZilberbergLublin??Fought near Trawniki

Symbol Guide (Legend)
* Escapee from the Sobibor Death Camp.
||| Escapee from the Warsaw Ghetto.
*** Escapee from Lipowa Street Camp, Lublin.
(()) Escapee from Adampol Labor Camp near Wlodawa.
@ Grynszpan group but combined with the Wlodawans (Lichtenberg group).
^ Note: "Patzan" was a nickname signifying a small person.


PARCZEW AND WLODAWA PARTISANS




From top, left: Dudkin Rubinstein, Jurek Pomeranc, Lonka Chaim Fefferkorn, Lova (Leon) Zitzman,
Yehiel Grynszpan, Yehuda "Junak" Milsztajn, Josef Rolnik, unknown Russian fighter. Kneeling, from left:
Abie Rubinstein (Abram the Patzan), Henry Barbanel, and Kirlow Rubinstein.



Dudkin Rubenstein (on the left), Yechiel Grynszpan (on the right), commander of this partisan unit;
Chaim Feferkorn (kneeling on the left) and Leon Lyowa Zitzman (kneeling on the right).



Unit commander Chil Grynspan, left, with unknown unit members.


Partisan Avigdor (Wigdor) Shporer in Lublin, 1944 (left side).


Partisans Zeev Litwack (Velvale the Patzan) and Chil Grynszpan, immigration photos to Brazil.























Leon Sittzmann (Zitzman), Joe Holm, and Herszel Rubensztejn.


Hersh Rubinstein, left. Shenka from Wlodawa, right.


From left: Moshe Peshalis, Motel Barbanel, his cousins Simcha Barbanel and Chanina Barbanel (skip the head
between them). Unknown, the uncle Gedalia "Geniek" Barbanel, unknown, and unknown.


Lichtenberg group partisans.


Nachum Knopfmacher, left, and Michael Knopfmacher (Michael Kaftori), right.


Unidentified partisans. Includes Michael Knopfmacher, 4th from right, center row. Next to him on the left: Chaim Ajzen.

ABRAHAM BRON'S GROUP


Partisans in the Lublin district, unidentified location. Left: Partisan leader Abraham Bron; others unidentified.




Unidentified partisans. Abraham Bron, back far left; Baruch Goldscher (Bernard Goldshore), third from left.


Unidentified partisans. Mischa Stahlhammer, front right.


Two fighters from the Polish underground "Armia Ludowa" in the Krasnik area. Photographed in 1944.

MARKUSZOW GROUP


Left to right: Simon Rabines, Shmuel Emil Jegier, Frank Bleichman, Stefan Sam Finkel. In Markuszow.


Plater group (L-R): Zelazny "Iron" Ajzenberg, Martin Kirszenbaum, Mordechai "Marczynek" Kirszenbaum, Simon Rabiner.


Unidentified fighters in Markuszow between 1943 and 1946. Seem to be affiliated with the Armia Ludowa.


OTHER PARTISAN GROUPS



PARTISANS TODAY




Partisans Isadore Farbstein, Rostka Holm, and Frank Blaichman.


ADDITIONAL SOURCES:

BOOKS:

- Azoy iz es geven (The Way It Was, Yiddish), Buenos Aires, 1948 by Jonas Turkow.
- Chaim Ajzen Remembers by Henry Steel
- I Chose Life by Samuel Gruber
- Codename Barber: The Story of Partisan Mischa Stahlhammer by Semmy Stahlhammer
- Escape from Sobibor by Richard Raschke
- Fighting Back: A Memoir of Jewish Resistance in WWII by Harold Werner
- From the Ashes of Sobibor: A Story of Survival by Thomas Toivi Blatt
- Fugitives of the Forest: Heroic Stories of Resistance & Survival in WWII by Gerald Levine
- Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past by Martin Gilbert
- Hurbn un gvure fun shtetl Markuszow (Destruction and Heroism, Town of Markuszow. Yiddish. Tel Aviv, 1955.
- Martyrdom and Revolt. Documents and Testimonies by Miriam Novitch, New York, 1980.
.. Includes several testimonies from Sobibor uprising survivors who fought as partisans.
- Promise at Sobibor: A Jewish Boy's Story of Revolt by Fiszel Bialowitz
- Rather Die Fighting: A Memoir of WWII by Frank Blaichman
- Reluctant Soldier: A Jewish Partisan's Story by Jakob Friedman
- The Reminiscences of Dov Berezin
- To Sobibor and Back: An Eyewitness Account by Kalman Wewryk
- Story of a Secret State: My Report to the World by Jan Karski
- Szmul Zygielbojm: Profile of Partisan Hero by Ronald Cohn and Jesse Russel
- The Witch Doctor: Memoirs of a Partisan by Dr. Michael Temchin
- The Undefeated by Shiye Goldberg
- War of the Doomed: Jewish Armed Resistance in Poland, 1942-1944 by Shmuel Krakowski

ARTICLES:

- About Jewish Partisan Frank Blaichman
- Armies of the Young: Child Soldiers in War and Terrorism; pps. 48-51 discuss partisan children in
.. the Lublin Forests
- Fate of Some of the Sobibor Survivors
- Iberlebungen fun a Veloner Krigsgefangenen in Sefer Zikaron le-Kehillat Wielun.
.. Tel Aviv, 1971, pp. 380-384. Testimony of Aryeh Lejb Helfgot.
- Imferno em Sobibor/Portuguese (Hell in Sobibor) by Stanislaw Szmajzner
- Jewish Revolts and Uprisings in the Lublin District
- Long Valley Man's Memoir Tells Heroic Life of Partisan
- Rescue of Jews from the Wlodawa Ghetto
- Rise and Fall of Wlodawa - from the Yizkor Book
- Russian Jews and the Sobibor Escape
- Sobibor Survivors' Testimonies
- Understanding the Polish Obsession with Salomon Morel

FILMS:

- Belzec Survivor Braha Rauffmann
- Escape from Sobibor
- Poland, Personally: Featuring Michael Kaftori, Wlodawa Partisan
- Profile of survivors Blaichman and Gruber
- Shmuel Mietek Gruber Video Testimony
- Tribute Video to Cesia and Frank Blaichman & Rose and Joe Holm

OTHER LINKS:

- Definitions of Important Terms Related to Jewish Partisans
- Lasting Memory Foundation: Lublin District Commemorations


HOT LINKS

Chelm.freeyellow.com Index

E-mail: GenealogyKid20@aol.com


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