Remembering the Jewish Partisans in Poland's Lublin District

ALSO ON THIS SITE: Memorials to victims in [Lublin District, Poland] * [Chelm - Hrubieszow Death March]
[Dubno, Ukraine] * [Belzec Death Camp] [Sobibor Death Camp] * [Majdanek Concentration Camp]
[Jewish Revolts and Uprisings in the Lublin District]

SITE INDEX: Click the link to be taken to each section.
1. Introduction
2. Groups form Northwest of Lublin
3. Groups form Northeast of Lublin
4. Groups form Southwest of Lublin
5. Groups form Southeast of Lublin
6. Groups form East of Lublin
7. Names of Blaichman-Gruber Partisans (with photos)
8. Names of Grynszpan-Lichtenberg Partisans (with photos)
9.
Names of Soviet Partisans from Lublin area (with photos)
10.
Names of Armia Ludowa Partisans from Lublin area
11.
Names of Warsaw Partisans Who Fought in Hrubieszow (with photos)
12.
Names of Bron-Bychawa-Krasnik-Janow Partisans (with photos)
13.
Names of Radzyn Podlaski Partisans
14.
Names of Miscellaneous Partisans (with photos)
15.
Links and Additional Sources

INTRODUCTION

Prior to the German occupation, more than 80,000 Jews lived in the five southern counties of the Lublin district: Janow Lubelski, Bilgoraj, Krasnystaw, Zamosc and Hrubieszow. These areas were ideal for partisan activities because the main railroads the Germans were using were north or south of the area and the area was hilly with several deep forests.
An additional 250,000 Jews lived in the other portions of the Lublin district, while many Jews were imported to the Lublin district between 1939 and 1943 from Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria, the Netherlands, and elsewhere during the Holocaust.

During the initial deportations of Jews from the Lublin district to Belzec, largely between April and September of 1942, Jews in small towns of southern Lublin showed persistent resistance -- according to the scholar Shmuel Krakowski, "perhaps greater resistance than in most other areas of Poland." The total number of those who fled from the five counties in southern Lublin reached 20,000 -- greater than in any other part of occupied Poland. Sadly, the majority of the fugitives were caught and killed in the first German hunts for escaped Jews.

The most successful Jewish partisan groups in the Lublin district were as follows: Chil Grynszpan's group in the Parczew forests; Frank Blaichman's group of youthful disobedients who refused to be confined to the ghetto of Kamionka near Lubartow; Shmuel Gruber's group of escaped prisoners of war from Lublin; the Knopfmacher group which escaped from the Wlodawa Ghetto and Adampol Labor Camp; and the Adolf Bron group in the western part of the Lublin district in the area around the Janow Lubelski forests.
Sobibor camp escapees eventually joined each of these groups after the Sobibor Uprising in October of 1943. The groups listed here consisted of solely Jewish members, with only a few exceptions for pro-Jewish Russian fighters, but had mostly helpful cooperation from the Armia Ludowa.

Amcha ("your people") was the "code" that the Maccabees had used when they fought the Syrians in the 2nd Century BCE. Jewish partisans in the forests of Lublin used this same password to identify other Jews in the area. In fighting as partisans, their number one goal was to save Jewish lives. Women with small children and the elderly found refuge because of the men and women listed below. Several of the "family camps" grew to hundreds of people, most especially the camp called Tabor operated by Grynszpan's 2nd Holod Battalion and the camp called Ohozhe operated by the Lichtenberg group.

As is evidenced from almost every testimony I have read to compile the research herein,
both the Narodowe Sily Zbrojne (NSZ) -- which had around 75,000 Polish fighters -- and the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa) -- which had around 270,000 fighters -- consisted of many vicious anti-Semites. The groups were very active in the Lublin district. Therefore not only did the partisan groups have to withstand the Nazis and anti-Jewish Polish fighters from these two armed groups, but also the combination of Polish military men and Polish farmers intent on murdering Jews.

Of course, there were some pro-Jewish Polish military men and an occasional pro-Jewish farmer as well. In spite of these obstacles, two cases of Jewish partisans rescuing Poles is documented in Marek Jan Chodakiewicz's book "Zydzi i Polacy 1918-1955" (Jews and Poles 1918-1955). In February of 1944, Abraham Bron saved his friends, Stanislaw Saganowski ("Dab") and his son Jerzy Saganowski ("Brzoza") of Aleksandrowka from the NKVD and the UB. They were active members of the NSZ, and thus had to go into hiding after the arrival of the Red Army. Bron arranged for immunity for the Saganowskis from the local secret police and protected them afterward. Bron helped them move to his house in Krasnik. Subsequently, Saganowski, Sr. went into a black market business with his Jewish friend. Saganowski, Jr. enrolled at a high school in Krasnik. Both maintained personal contacts with their NSZ colleagues but remained passive in the anti-Communist struggle. In a separate incident in the spring of 1945, a Jewish general, Aleksander Mieczyslaw Skotnicki saved Pawel Golombek from the Communist secret service (UB). Golombek was a Polish policeman who was secretly in the Underground. Skotnicki was later killed in battle.

Collectively and individually, Jews throughout the Lublin district resisted Nazi oppression. The Jewish partisans listed below are an inspiration. They valiantly fought and died for freedom against the Nazi murderers. In many cases, very little information remains about the existence of particular partisan groups due to the complete annihiliation of the units by the Nazi murderers. The conditions the partisans had to overcome are monumental by any standard. There was not just the lack of food, the constant starvation, and the need to find food by any means possible. Another obstacle was dealing with the fact that most of their family members had previously been murdered and overcoming the feeling that they were now truly alone in the world. There was also the problem of how to get weapons, how to stay warm in the winters, and how to avoid detection by Polish and German soldiers. Complicating this last matter was the fact that a majority of Poles and Ukrainians were eager to report Jews to the Nazi murderers. We fondly remember the Jewish partisans of the Lublin distrct as heroes, today and forever.

PARTISAN GROUPS

Three of the most successful Jewish partisan group leaders -- Shmuel "Mietec" Gruber, Yechiel "Chil" Grynszpan, and Abraham "Adolf" Bron -- had been corporals in the Polish Army. Jews had been required to serve their country, even as the borders changed, for centuries. This previous military training was crucial to their success as unit leaders. Below is information on the specific groups that formed between 1942 and 1944 in the district, each formed to fight off the Nazi murderers:


Groups form Northwest of Lublin: In Markuszow and Kamionka in 1942, groups of young Jews who escaped from ghettos or otherwise avoided capture managed to acquire weapons and food. When the Jewish community of Markuszow was rounded up, some 700 Jews fled. The four separate Jewish partisan groups -- one led by Mordechai Kirshenboim, a second led by brothers Yerucham and Yaakov Gotheilf, a third called the Cossacks, and a fourth group from Kamionka led by Frank Blaichman -- set up camps in the Wola forests. In early December of 1942, a group of S.S. men and Ukrainian auxiliaries arrived near Markuszow to search the forests for hidden Jews. On December 2, the first day of the search, about 400 Jews were killed. Another 600 perished before the sweep ended on January 20, 1943.

Thus, the first three groups of partisans mentioned above were exterminated. The only survivors of "the Cossacks" group, per Samuel Gruber's testimony, were Jusek Piasaki and Jerzy Marcinek. These two later merged with Gruber's group. There were two specific incidents still in memory today from the survivors. These incidents occurred after years on the run and in hiding. Near Markuszow was a village called Pryszczowa Gora, built on a peaty area with 350 families in the village. The residents, all peasants, were poor. Markuszow Jews built caves and camouflaged themselves at this locale. The shochet went out one day and was spotted by the military police after a local villager complained. The Germans were led to the entrance of the cavesite. The cave entrances were stuffed with straw and set on fire. All of the Jews were dead, except one little girl. She was taken in by the villagers and passed from house to house. The second incident concerned a separate group of Markuszow fighters, the Emilia Plater group led by Shmuel Yaeger. On Feb. 4, 1944, there were three unknown peasants at a barn owned by a farmer the partisans knew in Pryszczowa Gora. The threesome had reported the Jews to the Germans, and by the time the partisans realized this they were ambushed. The two survivors of this incident were Janek (also called Yosel), unknown surname, and Sziye Goldberg. They were both severely wounded.


Jegier, Gruber, and Blaichman groups -- main areas of movement.

Frank Blaichman's group was more successful because they were better armed. The group began with around 75 fighters, but in fall of 1942 50 of their fighters were killed in battle, leaving just 25 remaining. Blaichman's group was very successful in acquiring weapons, which several of the other Jewish partisan groups had great difficulty achieving. At just age 16 when the war started, Frank Blaichman became an unlikely leader and hero. He had no military background or training, but assumed the role of leader of the group for the purpose of avenging the blood of his murdered family members. The Blaichman group merged with a group led by Shmuel "Mietek" Gruber in the summer of 1943. The combined group total was around 90 fighters.

All Jewish members of the Polish Army were sent to the
Lipowa 7 Labor Camp in Lublin. Samuel Gruber and other Lipowa 7 inmates were forced to build the Majdanek Concentration Camp as part of their slave labor detail. Gruber had been injured in a battle in the campaign against the Nazis, so he was eventually taken out of slave labor. He remained at the Lipowa camp, but was assigned to work in an office of a hospital that distributed uniforms, rifles, and pistols to German soldiers coming from the front. He was able to steal weapons, which he funneled to the anti-German Polish underground. In October of 1942, Gruber and another prisoner named Kaganowicz (first name either Berko or Josef) led a group of around 25 men into the Kozlow woods north of Lublin. After Gruber's group, several other groups of prisoners from Lipowa 7 also escaped into the woods. They were aided by a People's Guard Polish detachment.


Gruber's group had difficulty finding weapons after escaping from Lipowa 7. His group had around 20 persons and was largely unarmed, but had local connections with friendly farmers -- especially in a particular hamlet north of Lubartow called Wola Przybyslawska, where the villagers were involved in the Polish underground. The Gruber group placed vulnerable, sick, or elderly Jews with farmers they could trust to avoid attracting attention.

The Blaichman and Gruber groups merged in summer, 1943, and together they hunted down Nazis and any Poles who collaborated with them. They blew up the town halls in Garbow and Markuszow because the Nazis were going to use lists of Jews in those locales for slave labor. They picked off German patrols and stole German weapons. They initially fought in the area west of the Wieprz River in the Janowski (Yanov) forest west of Lublin. The combined forces acquired rifles, pistols, and machine guns as well as food and clothing obtained from various sources, including Nazis, Polish villagers, and an occasional political ally. This combined group, "The Lubartow Group", reached Chil Grynszpan's groups in January of 1944 and merged with them. The combined groups had around 400 fighters and worked closely with the Armia Ludowa.

Groups form Northeast of Lublin: Yechiel (Chil) Grynszpan was part of a horse-trading family and thus became familiar with the wagon routes and swamps in the forests near where he grew up prior to the war. His family mostly traded with non-Jews, and therefore he also knew which Polish farmers could be trusted. In late 1942, Grynszpan's group formed. They had around 50 fighters but only two rifles and one pistol. In early 1943 they came across the remains of weapons hidden after the battles of September 1939. The group managed to acquire seven more rifles, ammunition, and a small number of grenades. Grynszpan worked to motivate the partisans, proclaiming boldly, "You are born once -- you only die once!" He became a larger than life figure.

Grynszpan's group set up a camp called Tabor where Jewish elderly, children, and those too weak to fight could still survive under the protection of the unit and surrounded by dense forests. An estimated 1,000 Jews were at the camp. Few of them actually ended up surviving the war. The camp residents were mostly from local villages such as Kodeniec, Pachole, Zahajki, and Krzywowierzby. The three village elders who oversaw the Tabor camp were Abram from Zaliscze (Abram Cholomski), Yankel from Holowno (Jankiel Kupfersztajn), and Nuchem from Krasnowka. Jews set up a makeshift synagogue in the forests. They carried out various services for the partisans, such tailoring, shoemaking, and cooking.

The partisans in the Grynszpan group had some variety. Among them was a group of escaped prisoners of war from Lipowa 7 camp, Fiodor Kovalev's brigade of Russian fighters (including some Jews), and later the Gruber-Blaichman-Yaeger Jewish partisans from the Pulawy area. Grynszpan himself eventually formed a tight bond with the Armia Ludowa, which recognized the group as most organized Jewish resistance in all of eastern Poland.

Some of the activities of the Grynszpan group included the liberation of Jews from forced labor at Jablonia and Adampol, preventing German transportation abilities, and attacking German brigades. Velvele Litwack, one of the young fighters, describes specific activities of the group below.


Tragically, in the fall of 1943, the Nazis invaded the campsite and 75 of the around 200 of the Jews living in it were murdered. In the fall of 1943, more than a dozen of the Sobibor uprising escapees found Grynszpan's group -- each sick, starved, and frozen. They included: Yehuda "Atleta" Lerner, Mordechai Goldfarb, a Russian Jew with a pistol (Boris Taborinski), Abraham Margules, Hella Fellenbaum, Ajzik Rotenberg, Itzhak Lichtman, Ada Fischer, Kitty Gokkes, and Ursula Stern. Prior to finding the Grynszpan group, Sobibor survivors Lerner, Taborinski, and Moshe Goldfarb were with a group of six other Sobibor survivors who were lured into a group of around 20 Polish fighters led by two brothers called Piatek. Without warning, these Polish fighters attacked the Jewish Sobibor survivors near Hola, and six were murdered, including one woman. Three lived to tell the story. They left this group and continued to search for allies, and fortunately met the Grynszpan partisans.

The Lubartow group of Gruber and Blaichman eventually joined Chil Grynszpan's battalion. The combined units were tough, experienced, and disciplined by the fall of 1943. There were 150 people in the combined unit, including 20 armed women who fought alongside the men. They were fierce opponents to the Nazis and their collaborators and killed any Nazis they encountered. The group derailed bridges, blew up at least four army troop trains, hijacked German supply trucks on highways, cut phone poles between Lublin and Wlodawa, and attacked police headquarters and government posts in Kaplonosy and Parczew


Grynszpan, Lichtenberg, and Knopfmacher groups -- main areas of movement.

Grynszpan group partisan Zev Velvele Litwack recalls:
"On December 16, 1942 Chil led us to the village Ostrowa, where we started a heavy fight with the Hitlerists and after some hours we succeeded in conquering the position. German officers fell in our hands and 12 Polish policemen were shot. We captured many arms, uniforms, and other things. We burned down their housings and the town hall. The mayor, who had cooperated with the Germans, was shot. This was the first act of revenge for the Jewish bloodshed." But there was a price to pay: shortly after the victory, the Germans surrounded the partisans. The partisans were bombed for three days with planes and tanks. According to Litwack, "When they were about 40 meters from our range of sight came the order: 'Fire!' And we opened fire from all sides, so that the Germans did not know from where it came and they were standing in an open cornfield on their way towards us. In this battle we lost three partisans, two Russians and one Jew, Simcha Lewinson from Sosnowica. Tens of Germans were killed. After fighting for about five hours the Germans retreated."

1942 was a year with great snowfalls, storms and frosts. Winter was at its peak. The situation for the partisans was not good; most were naked, barefoot, and hungry. They attacked villages taking weapons and cattle by force, but lost Jewish fighters in each attack. Continues Litwack: "On January 11, we were surrounded in the forest of Parzew by a big German unit. But our Russian commander (Fiodor Kovalev) tricked them and we pushed back their attack. On February 26, 1943 at 11am, a group of 10 people with the commander Zemsta (Alexander Skotnicki, a Jew from the Armia Ludowa) were surrounded by 400 Germans. My comrades were sleeping in the hut of the forest guard and only I, wearing a German uniform, kept guard. The Germans approached, shouting: 'Comrade (friend)!' I threw myself down on the ground and started shooting at them. The Germans answered with heavy fire from machine guns. I detained them until the group left the hut and I succeeded in withdrawing to the other side. Our fighters, among them Zipora Koren (a teenager of around 15) opened fire and succeeded in passing and leaving the German encirclement.

In March 1943, the first planes with arms from the Soviet Union arrived. At the same time we separated from Russian partisans and formed a Jewish division under the leadership of Chil. We bombed trains near the village of Sarki, not far from Sobibor; we burned down a glass-works factory in Dubeczno. In Wyryki, we burnt the guardhouse, in Kaplonosy we attacked the German army and killed 26 Germans, and in Sosnowica we attacked a garrison and killed 120 Germans. Additionally, our forces destroyed the Bridge near to Sawin, where the railways passed on which the trains with German soldiers to the front were transported. One night we invaded in Parczew, burned the town hall and shot the guard. A week did not pass without our having removed from the rails a train with soldiers.

At the same time we stopped sleeping in the forest but slept instead in the villages that we had gained control of and where we had sympathetic non-Jews. The government of all councils of the whole district of Wlodowa went over to our side. Then Chil Grynszpan organized the division under the command of the Armia Ludowa, left-wing Polish fighters. Chil was promoted high commander.

In April, 1943 we were heavily attacked in the forest of Kaplonosy. In this battle we lost 70 Jewish fighters. Women and children rescued from the ghetto Wlodowa were also killed. It became known to us that in Adampol there were Jews from Wlodowa and Sosnowica. Nisan Cyn agreed to join me, but he was the only one. In the evening we both went to a farmer in Kaplonosy whom we knew very well. We promised him a good pig if he would bring us to the camp. He led us there and remained half a kilometer away of the camp and we continued. Nisan stood at the gate and I in German-uniform entered the camp. I took two Jews with me and left.

The winter months were slowly creeping until the summer of 1943 arrived. We were informed that Jews were still living in the ghetto. I learned that from my whole family which was killed in Sobibor, only father survived. I sent a farmer from the village Krasnowka to bring my father to the forest. The farmer returned without my father but with a letter from him in which it was written: 'My son, I don't have anything to live for and it is not worthwhile for me to come to the forest. G-d shall help you and guard you from all dangers. Revenge all, for the innocent Jewish blood which was shed'. On May 2, 1943 at night, Wlodowa was encircled by S.S.-men and Ukrainians driving out Jews from their hiding places. Tens of men, women, and children were shot in the street. My father too was shot on Wyryki street. This was the last action to dispose of Jews in the Wlodowa ghetto, which was one of the last remaining ghettos in the entire region.

One night I invaded in the first barrack of the camp Adampol. The Jews were already sleeping and I woke them taking along with me more than 30 people, ordering them to pass the fence while I jumped after them. All this was accomplished so silently that nobody noticed what happened. The farmer led us to the forest of Kaplonosy, where Chil Grynszpan was waiting with his whole group. This successful experiment increased our courage and we started enlarging our visits taking out Jews from Wlodowa, Sosnowica, Kaplonosy, Wyryki, and other places. Another day we made an assembly and decided to take all the Jews from Adampol, as we had learned that the last action was going to take place. It was determined that five men with arms should enter the camp hiding the arms and organizing the Jews to be prepared to leave the camp for the forest. Yurek Cholomsky and four others were sent.

But the Nazi head of the camp, Selinger, learned about the presence of the partisans in the camp and about their intention to lead the Jews out of the camp. He phoned the Gestapo in Wlodowa and on the same day some hundreds of them enclosed the camp and drove out all the Jews to the fields and fired at them. The five partisans went the first and when they were in the fields they shouted loudly all the Jews started escaping and dispersing in all directions. The Germans opened fire killing all the Jews, except Yurek, a man from Wlodawa, and Yeshayahu from Wyryki. On this day, 600 Jews were massacred from Wlodowa and the surroundings. All were buried in a common grave next to Adampol.

In June 1943 we fought against the Germans behind the village Zahajki. Our commander was then Yechiel Grynspan, who conducted the battle with exceptional fighting spirit and strategic talent. In the same battle we lost two fighters. One was Yeshayahu Lichtenstein, the son of the Rabbi of Wlodowa. In every place we went, we were ambushed by Germans and Poles filled with hate for the Jews. We fought against them day after day. We were never able to relax because of the terrible situation we had to confront. For us, there was not much hope that we would survive this devastation. But within each of us existed a great spirit to rise up to fight." -- Velvele Litwack
One daring, but ultimately unsuccessful, action devised by the Grynszpan unit was an attempt to liberate 770 Jewish prisoners from the Krasnik Labor Camp (Skret). Liaison was established with the Jews inside the camp, who were supplied with 30 revolvers and a number of hand grenades. A plan for concerted action was carefully developed -- the revolt inside the camp was to flare up simultaneously with the partisan attack from the outside. An informer revealed the plans to the Nazis. Several days before the scheduled revolt was to take place, the Nazis seized the armed rebels inside the camp, killed the bulk of them, and transferred others to nearby Budzyn Labor Camp.

By July of 1944, Chil's partisan forces -- which had formed an alliance with the Armia Ludowa -- was surrounded by German soldiers. On July 22, the Red Eighth Army passed them during the night, and the partisans from the Mietek and Grynszpan groups were behind the front line of liberated Poland. Of the roughly 4,000 Jews who had fled to the forests of Parczew, Markuszow, and Wlodawa between 1940 and 1944, only around 200 were still alive. Chil's group was one of the most successful partisan detachments in all of Europe.


Wlodawa is located east of the Bug River, near Sobibor. In this area, scores of sub-camps of Sobibor were set up and captured Jews were engaged in heavy forced labor. In October of 1942, a separate group of around a dozen partisans formed outside of Adampol, Poland. Freedom was a new concept for this group, as most had been imprisoned in the Wlodawa or Adampol ghettos and had found a way to escape. This group was the beginnings of the Moshe Lichtenberg group.

By March, 1943 the group had around 30 fighters including around 27 males and three females. The Polish farmer Papinski was a messenger between the Lichtenberg group and local populations. In May, 1943 the Wlodawa Ghetto was liquidated. Between the partisan groups in the area, there were at least four rescue missions into the Wlodawa Ghetto to smuggle Jews out of it, and over 100 Jews were taken out of the ghetto or the nearby Adampol Labor Camp. The Lichtenberg partisan group gained new members until it reached 80 fighters. The very young, very old or those without any weapons were relocated to a place called Ochozhe, an island inside the forest surrounded by very deep swamps. This was a family camp similar to the Tabor camp of the Grynszpan group, protected by the partisan fighters.

Lichtenberg's group, which eventually came to number 100 to 120 fighters (including 10 female fighters), briefly joined the Chil Grynszpan group, but Lichtenberg's leadership style clashed with that of Grynszpan. In July, 1943, a man named Kolka Meluch arrived in Wlodawa with a small brigade of fighters and explained that he was from the Bielorussian partisan movement headquarters. Lichtenberg believed him and followed him toward the headquarters with all 100+ fighters from the group. They crossed the Bug River to continue their struggle for freedom in the Soviet partisan movement. While there, unit leaders Moshe Lichtenberg, Motel Rosenberg and Chaim Fiszman were shot by Kolka in a dispute over machine guns. It was a devastating defeat for the partisans. Melech was not a partisan commander as he had stated, but simply a bandit in the forests looking for people to take advantage of.

After losing these key men, Leon Nemzer, who had served in the Polish Army, took over as the group's leader. The ammunition and food supplies of the Lichtenberg group were consistently very sparse. The local Poles in the area around Wlodawa were very hostile to the Jewish partisans. A few months after Nemzer became leader, the group of Jewish partisans was absorbed into the Molotov Partisan Brigade, which had four Otriads. Each of the Otriads had around 400 fighters. In April of 1944, the Soviet Army liberated the area where the partisans were.

Another group of Jews mostly from the Wlodawa area formed inside of the labor camp and eventually escaped. This group, led by Nachum Knopfmacher, eventually merged with Lichtenberg's group, but the two leaders had different ideas about the right actions to take in the short term. Lichtenberg was more focused on revenge and Knopfmacher was more focused on freeing Jews from the Adampol Labor Camp.

Groups form Southwest of Lublin: In late 1942, several independent fighter groups were present in the forests around Krasnik and Janow Lubelski: 1) A Jewish partisan unit from Frampol that had escaped from the ghetto; 2) a group under Yaakov Freitag that had originated near the village of Reczyca in Pulawy County; 3) a group under Reuven Pintele's leadership; 4) a group that escaped from the Majdanek Concentration Camp under the leadership of a partisan named Robert; 5) a group of 40 escaped POWs from Lipowa 7 led by David Reisler; a group of Russians (including some Jews) under Ciencow; and several non-Jewish Polish fighting groups.

In July of 1942, Armia Ludowa partisan detachment "Jastrzab" led by Antoni Palen ("hawk") burned a sawmill and lumber depot in Janowek, near Janow Lubelski. In March 1943, Jastrzab attacked two German cars on the highway near Bilgoraj, and in May 1943, they attacked the German garrison in Lipa near Krasnik.

On October 2, 1942, 300 Jews fled Frampol during the deportations to the death camps. Some of them had acquired guns earlier and had them hidden in the forests. The escaped prisoners joined with Korczynski's Armia Ludowa unit and was also wiped out before the end of 1943.

Robert's Majdanek unit carried out a successful ambush on the road near Bychawa, attacking two trucks carrying gendarmes, on October 15, 1942. They were based in the Lipsk forest, according to partisan researcher Shmuel Krakowski.

In October, 1942, prisoner David Reisler led a group of 40 Lipowa 7 prisoners in an escape from the Lublin labor camp that housed POWs. By December, they were betrayed by the Armia Ludowa (AL), supposedly their allies. All except two fighters, Jan Szelubski and Chaim Blacher, were murdered. Szelubski survived the war and went to Israel. Blacher was killed at a later date in battle.

Reuven Pintele's partisan group -- of whom little is known -- attacked the Germans, killing commandant Peter Ignar, at the Janiszow Labor Camp near Annopol on November 6, 1942. Although all of the prisoners were free to leave the camp, they had no resources such as food and arms, and many were either caught and killed or sent to the Budzyn Labor Camp. Around 60 prisoners successfully escaped, but were eventually attacked and murdered by armed Polish bandits.

From 1942 until the liberation in late July of 1944, the Armia Ludowa also continuously operated a secret radio transmitter in the city of Lublin which transmitted valuable intelligence to the Soviets. In an effort to display their organizational and tactical superiority, the Armia Ludowa dispatched two important figures to the Krasnik area in February, 1943: 1) Joseph Szapiro, a former officer in the Spanish Civil War, brought along instructions for intensifying the partisan action in the area; and 2) Grzegorz Korczynski, also a former officer in the Spanish Civil War, brought along instructions to command units in the area.

Soon, the Tadeusz Kosciuszko unit was formed, which consisted of the following AL groups under Korczynski's command: 1) A group under Ciencow, a Russian POW, which included Russians and a Jewish officer named Grisha, from Kiev. 2) The Berek Joselowicz detachment under Eduard Forst, which was based near Puszcza Solska, a little northwest of Jozefow. The group formed and fought in April and May of 1943, but by August they had been murdered. 3) Two Polish units under the command of Andrzej Flis ("Maksym") and Choina. Polish fighters in the unit also included Jan Plowas, Edward Plowas, Stefan Staregowski, Edward Gronczewski ("quail"), Jan Pytl ("Leon"), and Jan Wzietek ("negro"). 4) A Russian unit under the command of Mihael Atamanov (also called Umer Adamanov and Miszka Tatar). 5) A mixed Russian-Polish-Jewish unit under the command of Antoni Palen ("Jastrzab"). And 5) A Jewish unit called Staszic. The total number of fighters was 300 and they concentrated their efforts in Zamosc and Bilgoraj counties.

In March 1943 they destroyed the device substation at the railway station Rapy and burned warehouses and workshops, liquidated the police station and vandalized municipal office in Huta Krzeszowska. Korczynski was intent on attacking the Rejowiec-Lwow rail line. But on April 4, 1943, nearly every Jewish partisan in the unit -- with one exception, Korczynski himself -- was murdered. The circumstances surrounding the deaths have never been explained. Additional details regarding Korchinsky's appalling anti-Jewish activities are available here. A group of Jews from the Staszic unit survived, and decided to join the nearby Kovpak unit on March 1, 1944, who were based in Tarnogrod.


Partisan leader Abraham Bron, after immigration to Brazil.

Another unit in the area was the Abraham Bron unit, which had 40 Jewish fighters who had mostly escaped from the Krasnik ghetto. They also operated a family camp which had around 200 Jews. The group's initial concerns were finding food and carrying out small attacks on Polish police and German gendarmerie posts to acquire arms. They later were joined by around 30 escaped Soviet prisoners of war. The combined group attempted a series of attacks on trains, but had difficulty carrying out these attacks due to their lack of military training and the superior skills of the German enemy.

By summer, 1943 the Armia Ludowa units were reorganized into two groups: Battalion number 3, which consisted of Polish fighters, under Wladyslaw Skrzypek, and Battalion number 4 under Karol Lemichow-Herzenberger. The Jewish Adolf unit and a Russian unit were thus working side by side under the German Lemichow, who was made a commander of the Armia Ludowa after being injured during his service in the Red Army. However, a plan was drawn up for the destruction of Abraham Bron's Jewish partisan unit by the commander of Battalion number 4. And nineteen Jewish partisans were murdered when their own unit, the Armia Ludowa fighters led by Lieutenant Karol Herzenberger Lemichow and armed Polish bandits led by Andrzej Kielbasa, turned their guns on the Jewish fighters.


L-R: Armia Ludowa's Karol Hertzenberg, Grzegorz Korczynski, Jan Wyderkowski.

A majority of the Jewish Bron unit managed to escape their attackers. After this incident, the Bron unit understandably left the Armia Ludowa. A month earlier, Kielbasa was also involved in the murders of 26 other Jewish fighters, including Yaakov Freitag, the commander of a group of fugitives from Rzeczyca (near Poniatowa Concentration Camp), and Yehoshua Pintel. Frank Blaichman describes this incident his book as follows: "We learned that on September 9 a unit of the Polish National Armed Forces (NSZ) had killed 26 Jewish partisans in the Borowa Forest, south of Lublin. They had gained access to the partisans' base by pretending to want to help them and then had come at night and thrown grenades into the bunkers while the partisans slept. The AL later composed a song in memory of these partisans, but the words fail to mention that the partisans were Jews."

Herzenberger was killed on December 26, 1943 in a clash between his unit and the Germans. After his death, the Bron unit rejoined the Armia Ludowa. According to Shmuel Krakowski, the Jews made up a significant part of the Armia Ludowa forces operating out of bases in the forests of Lipsk in the winter of 1943-1944. The units were as follows: Lenek's group, a mixed unit of Jews and Russians numbering 43 fighters; Grzybowski's unit; Jastrzab's unit; Bohdan's unit; and Prohor's unit, which was an all-Jewish unit. By this time the Bron unit numbered around 25 fighters. Bron unit partisans included Prohors or Prohor (a non-Jew), Zysmilch, Hirsh Brones, and Yehoshua Kleinman (who was killed).

In winter and spring of 1944, the Jewish units gained new members: 26 prisoners who escaped from the Klemensow Labor Camp near Szczebrzeszyn, 13 prisoners escaped from the Budzyn Labor Camp, and eight escapees from Skret (Krasnik) Labor Camp.

The Germans opened a large anti-partisan campaign in Poland on June 9, 1944 which included more than 25,000 fighters. The operation was led by the Nazis Haeneke and Bork. The partisans numbered around 5,000 fighters, including 3,000 Soviets, more than 1,500 Poles, and more than 100 Jewish fighters (most of whom belonged to the Adolf Bron unit). Jewish fighters were also serving in the Janowski and Wanda Wasilewska units, which included several dozen Jews among many Russians. The two groups moved into the Krasnik area around this time.

The partisan forces suffered heavy losses in battle and the Janowski and Wanda Wasilewska retained only around 1/5 of their members. The Adolf unit lost most of its members in a battle with Division 154 on June 14, 1944 in the forest of Janow Lubelski. It was just a few weeks before the area was liberated. Around 15 of the Bron unit fighters survived. Additional information about resistance in the Krasnik area is available in the Krasnik Yizkor book. Abraham Bron is discussed on page 111 of "The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust" by Martin Gilbert.

Groups form Southeast of Lublin: There were also several Jewish partisan groups that formed in the southern tier of the Lublin district. They were frequently in touch with Russian units that traveled in and out of the district and then headed back east. In May 1942, a group of young Jews from Tomaszow Lubelski -- led by Mendel Heller, Meir Lilkemakher (Lalichmacher), and Szymon Goldsztein -- organized a Jewish partisan unit. This unit fought the Germans for some time, but was betrayed by local Poles and annihilated.

According to Shmuel Krakowski, in July 1942, Jews and Poles joined Rayevski's Russian unit in the south of Lublin. This unit became the largest in the area and had three submachine guns and a few rifles as well as grenades and pistols for each fighter. Rayevski (Ryavski) decided to leave to go to Russia but the Jewish partisans stayed behind because they were familiar with the local area. The unit split up, with a majority heading east. The leftover Jewish unit, led by the brothers Chaskiel Met and Yaakov Met, was based in Kosznia near Frampol. A local forest watchman in Kosznia told the Germans exact details of the whereabouts of the Jewish partisans. The Jews killed this Polish collaborator. But when the Armia Krajowa found out about it, they spread anti-Jewish propaganda in the area and recruited hundreds of peasants to expel the partisans from the forests (source: Shmuel Krakowski).

In the vicinity of Majdan Tyszowski, Tomaszow Lubelski county, a Jewish partisan unit commanded by a Jew from Lublin named Cudok (also spelled Tsadok, Tzadik or Chudak) established contact with the local unit of the Armia Krajowa. After a successful joint operation, the Armia Krajowa unit invited the Jewish combatants for a feast. The Jews were first served poisoned vodka and then fired upon. No one survived (source: Unequal Victims: Poles and Jews during World War).

Beginning in 1941, many Jews from Lublin looked for shelters in the region between Lublin and Bychawa, in the villages and farms. At the beginning of October 1942, when the decrees with regards to Belzec came out, many Jews were hidden in this area. According to partisan Motel Sternblitz,
"In order to give you an idea of the amount of Jews that were hidden, I would like to tell about the following incident: In the latter part of 1942, 70 Jews were gathered at the garden of Palyuch, the farmer. We were there all day. My heart is bleeding when I recall that out of all 70 Jews, among them my father, only 12 people were left as far as I know. All others were killed.

After this incident, a partisan group was formed by Henoch Zimerman and operated in the Dombrow and Osterlic forests. Zimerman informed all the villages in the area that anyone who will expose a Jew will be shot to death and his house will be set on fire. After a farmer named Balachuk killed Zadok's brother-in-law (Yoel), Zimerman burned his house and the partisan caught Balachuk and killed him. They put his body on the road and left a note that he was killed because he turned in a Jew to the Nazis.

Zimerman terrified the villages in the area. He also took care of food supply for the hidden Jews. For example, once he ordered the farmers of the Dombinski farm to take out every night pots with cooked potatoes and to put it next to their huts. He also announced that he will come to check if the order was carried out, and he did. For several weeks, the farmers took out pots with cooked potatoes for the Jews. At the beginning of 1943, Zimerman attacked the police station of Piotrkowek. He took from the seven policemen their weapons and set fire to the documents and Archive to prevent checking of false documents.
Motel Szernblitz was in a cowshed and heard the shooting. He went to the forest and saw the Zimerman group killing four German gendarmes and three or four others were able to escape. Zimerman took their machine guns from them. In May or June 1943, Zimmerman was arrested, but the arresting forces did not know he was a partisan . They took him to Piotrkowek, from which he was able to escape.

In the end of summer of 1943, Zimerman was killed along with six others, including Cudok. A German unit surrounded the village Majdan Tyszowski. They burned 12 houses of Zimerman and his group -- 16 people in total were hiding in a cowshed in the village. The German surrounded them. Zimerman tried to break out to the forest. The battle took from 11:00 until 16:00 hours. Zimerman continued to shoot until his last moment. Reznik and few others reached the forest and survived.

At the end of June, 1942, a Polish-Soviet unit called Miszka Tatar (led by Mihail Atamanov) combined with Peasant Battalion detachment "Iskrzak" and Armia Ludowa detachment "Tomasz" to burn a sawmill and furniture factory operated by the Germans in Tarnawatka, a little north of Tomaszow Lubelski.

A group of Jewish partisans from the ZZW (Jewish Military Union) had a camp in Hrubieszow where anti-Nazi training took place. Andrew Kolin writes in his book One Family Before and During the Holocaust, "Many members of Betar would be sent to training camp on a farm close to Hrubieszow. A Jewish supporter of Betar was willing to employ members to work on his farm. A number of Betar members went to work there and maintained the organization [and] those who returned [to Warsaw] became the vital core of the Jewish Military Union. Zivia Lubetkin, who was part of the movement, characterized the efforts as follows: "Agricultural work was particularly important because it enabled us to remove groups of Jewish youth from the suffocating confines of the ghetto. It succeeded in creating a humane, cooperative atmosphere based on mutual aid, equity, and social relationships which were altogether different from what was current in the ghetto."

Testifying in 1946, Holocaust survivor Adam Helperin from Warsaw notes that "special fighting units" were formed around Hrubieszow. "They underwent military training in order to fulfill the Betar pledge: 'I will prepare my arm for the defense of my people ...'." However, according to Holocaust scholars Dariusz Libionka and Laurence Weinbaum, Halperin's account only mentions two names of the fighters themselves: Felek Langleben and Asher Frenkel. The only known survivors of the group were Perec Laskier and Fela Szabszyk Finkelsztajn.

According to Laskier [writing in Hebrew in 1962], in the summer of 1941, Julek Brandt -- also called Joel or Jakob -- appeared in the Warsaw ghetto accompanied by Hans Brandwein, a veteran Betar leader from Bielsko. Both were well known to the organizational leadership in Warsaw. Brandt was a Hrubieszow native whose relatives were key leaders in the Judenrat in Hrubieszow. (Note: Judenrat members in the Lublin district, in general, did not cooperate with the Nazis. The primary exception to this was in Zamosc, where the Judenrat chairman was complicit.)

Notes Libionka and Weinbaum, "After learning about the tragic situation in the [Warsaw] ghetto, they came up with the idea of organizing the legal transfer of the Betar activists to Hrubieszow." They note that around 600 Betar activists were brought to the Hrubieszow area, where they worked on six farms in different locations. It is not clear on what farms or in what suburbs of Hrubieszow they worked, but several testimonies confirm that there was a farm in Dluzniow where 30 Jews worked along with Poles and Ukrainians. However, the records of the Judenrat in Hrubieszow have been lost, so no account of these facts exists.

Separate from the Betar movement, Libionka and Weinbaum mention that a Dror kibbutz was established at a sawmill in Werbkowice near Hrubieszow in 1941. Forty Jews lived there, led by Moshe Rabinowicz. The leader of it was Henoch Gutman. However, no conclusive link can be made to evidence that the Dror and Betar members were cooperating with each other. Frumka Plotnicka and Chawa Follman were the Dror representatives.

Others mentioned in the testimony of Fela Szabszyk as participating with Betar in Hrubieszow include: her brother Moshe Szabszyk (perished at Sobibor), Olek Halbersztadt, Natan Schulz, Josef "Jerzy" Bielawski, Salek Hazenszprung, Avraham Bekkerman, and unknown Apfelbaum. Laskier mentions only Chaim Haus, Aszer Frenkel, Felek Langleben, and unknown Szochet. Researcher Chaim Lazar-Litai, in his book Muranowska 7, notes that Chedwa Wicher and Langleben were arrested on the train to Zamosc and shot.

The fate of Julek Brandt is known: after jumping from a transport to Sobibor in October 1942, he and several Judenrat members were betrayed by local peasants and turned over to the gendarmerie. They were then delivered to the Gestapo in Hrubieszow. Somehow, Brandt to convince the Germans to create a work camp in Hrubieszow. This work camp saved the lives of the 200 remaining Jews in Hrubieszow, who would have surely been murdered if it did not exist. (Note: My grandfather was among those in the Jatkowa camp.) Tragically, Julek Brandt was taken to the Jewish cemetery in Hrubieszow and murdered by Gestapo-man August Ebner in December 1942 or January 1943.

According to partisan Halperin, "This was the first stage in Betar's war of defense. It was also the first military action undertaken by the Jews of Warsaw." Concludes Libionka and Weinbaum, "No matter how we choose to assess this curious chapter in history, we do know that the few survivors of the Hrubieszow experience were mobilized into the nascent Revisionist fighting organization and heroically fought and died in its ranks." See also: Betar Partisans in Hrubieszow

Groups form East of Lublin: There were more than a dozen Russian partisan groups in the Lublin district. There was significant overlap between the Russian partisan groups in the Lublin district and both the Red Army and the Armia Ludowa. One of the earliest Russian partisan group was led by an escaped Soviet officer called David. In the spring of 1942, David's group joined a partisan unit under the command Fiodor Kovalov (partisan name Teodor Albrecht), a Soviet officer and escaped POW. The group became known as Pushkin's group, or Imienia Jozefa Bema. It consisted of both Jewish and non-Jewish Russian fighters, mostly escaped POWs, and had around 40 unskilled fighters.

Fighting near the Makoszka forests near Parczew and Ostrow Lubelski, the first battle of Fioder's partisans took place in November 1942. The partisans tried to beat off a German assault on a forest where a group of Parczew Jews were hiding. The partisans were forced to retreat, and most of the Jews were killed on the spot. On December 6-8, 1942, the partisans fought another battle in the Parczew forests. In spite of having considerable police and military forces, the Germans suffered significant losses while the partisans managed to successfully extract themselves out of the encirclement. On December 17, 1942 the Fiodor unit captured the town of Ostrow Lubelski, killing a policeman and wounding a few others. During this battle, a Polish police post was attacked while a post office, a dairy factory assisting the German war effort, and a German government office were destroyed.

The following Jewish members were killed in action around Passover, 1943: Chuna Kot, Lejb Grinblat, Hersz Rodzinek, Yosef Waserman and Itzak Tarif. Soon after, Fiodor's Pushkin partisans joined Jan Holod's battalion, which was working with Chil Grynszpan's group from spring 1943 forward. In the second half of 1943 and the beginning of 1944, Ostrow Lubelski was under the control of the Communist AL (Armia Ludowa). Eventually Fiodor is believed to have gone eastward into Russian territory.


Moshe "Mischa" Edelstein, born 1923 in Kalisz, led a partisan unit.

A Soviet group led by the Edelstein brothers and Itzhak Reichman numbered around 20 fighters. The Edelstein brothers were refugees from Kalisz who went to Povorsk, Ukraine and organized an underground resistance there. The group operated out of the forests. Misha Edelstein was humble and modest, but wanted revenge for the deaths of his parents and girlfriend Raja Plus. Today in Rivne there is a memorial in memory of Misha Edelstein. He was murdered in battle after the liberation. Pasha Reichman later joined another unit and went to Israel after the war.

A second Soviet partisan group, called the Janowski group, is discussed in the section below.

The Wanda Wasilewska brigade led by Oleksiy Fedorov (Alexei Fyodorov) was a large brigade of mixed Jewish and non-Jewish fighters. This group mostly fought east of the Bug River, but eventually crossed westward to take on the Germans more directly. According to partisan survivor Ben Kamm, the brigade destroyed 549 German trains by the end of 1943.

Many of the groups, including the Fyodorov group, received airdrops from Russia, which included such needs as ammunition, mines, and medicines. They also received regular reports from Radio Moscow. The group's objectives were to distribute weapons to the local population and to get as many people to fight as possible.

A fourth Soviet group was led by Maksim Misyura, a non-Jew, and had 90 Jewish fighters in it. It was called the Voroshilov battalion. Aleksander Abugov, Froim Bakalczyk, Moshe Bromberg, and Nahum Silberpark were among the Jewish leaders of the group. The group included Jews from Dabrowica (Dubrovitsa), Sarny, and Wlodimierzec in the Wolyn district. In January and February of 1943, the group carried out raids on police stations, ranches, and German administration buildings. The partisans seized foodstuffs and animals (horses and cows) which they distributed to the neighboring residents.

Jews Who Fought with the Armja Ludowa: Several units also joined with the Armia Ludowa, the left-wing Polish forces fighting the Nazis. Most of the Jews involved in the AL were not political at all, but simply were fighting to sustain their livelihood. The Janowski group was one such group who fought with the Armia Ludowa. This mixed group, which had around 50 to 70 fighters in 1944, was led by Jews Leon Kasman and Leon Bielski. The Janovski group arrived to Parczew forests at the beginning of 1943, crossing west from the Bug. Their main mission was to free the Poniatowa Labor Camp near Opole Lubelski. However before that took place, in November of 1943, all of the Jews in Poniatowa were murdered. The group continued moving west and came to Mielec, Poland near the end of the war. They succeeded in attacking German units and blowing up trains. They received heavy support from Russia, as the heads of the unit had strong ties to the Russian military. They also took revenge on a Polish family that had shot the Jews they were hiding, however the location of this incident is not known.

Jewish doctor Michael Temchin was a commander in the Armia Ludowa, a leftist underground organization in Poland. His unit, which consisted of both Jews and non-Jews, was active around Krasnik, Lublin district. They planned to rescue Jews from the Krasnik Ghetto. However those inside the Ghetto were hesitant to allow the partisans to act, and in one night the entire Krasnik Ghetto was wiped out with few managing to survive or escape.

A significant number of Jews reached important positions in the Polish partisan movement, especially in Units on the left, the AL, and the Socialist Fighting Organization. The Commander of the largest Partisan Battalion in Generalgouvernement territory was the Jewish Officer, Alexander Skotnicki (Captain Zemsta), who was included among the Armia Ludowa's renowned organizers list.

General Rola-Zimierski, the commander of the Armia Ludowa, declared at a meeting of the Polish National Assembly on the 2nd of January 1946: "Jewish soldiers fought against the occupation forces with much devotion and courage. They were valiant fighters and very often great heroes" and in his letter to the Organization of Jewish Partisans (F.P.O.), the general wrote: "Among the Jews who remained alive there were thousands who went into the woods to fight with arms, and fought together with their Polish partisan comrades against the common enemy."

This is a list of the Jewish partisans who operated in the Lublin district during the Holocaust. Names are approximations based on various sources.
Many of the names are Polish proper names, so Jozef = Josef = Joe and Rojza = Rosa = Rose. Other names are Yiddish or Hebrew names, so
Yaakov = Jakub = Jacob and Chana = Hanka = Hannah. To add a name to this list, please contact us.



KAMIONKA PARTISANS
Kamionka Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Frank Blaichman, co-leader Kamionka, Dec. 11, 1922 New York Photos available; testimony available
Hershel Herszman Staroscin Murdered Jan. 31, 1943  
Josef Herszman Staroscin, 1920 Murdered Jan. 31, 1943 The Jan. 31, 1943 murders took place at Majarka near Garbow
Jusek Herszman Staroscin, 1927 Murdered  
Leon Herszman Staroscin Israel  
Max Naftali Jammer*** ? ?  
Jankiel Klerer, co-leader Kamionka? Murdered in 1943 Discussed in: "Resistance: Teen Partisans and Resisters" by Dvorson
Blimka Lamberg Kamionka, ~1925 Murdered Jan. 31, 1943  
Mendel Lamberg Kamionka Murdered  
Franciszek Efraim Lewin Kamionka, 1917 Died in Frankfurt, Germany Changed his name to Efraim Lewinski
Usher Lewin Kamionka Murdered in 1943  
Abram Reis Kamionka? Murdered Jan. 31, 1943  
Ester Reis Kamionka?, ~1925 Murdered Jan. 31, 1943  
Moshe Sznajderman 1917 Died Dec. 14, 2000 in Israel  
Moniek Sztengel Warsaw ? "returned to Warsaw"
Chaim from Michow Michow ?  
Shabse from Kamionka Kamionka Murdered Jan. 31, 1943  
Simcha (unknown)   Murdered  
       

Left to right: Simon Rabines, Shmuel Emil Jegier, Frank Bleichman, Stefan Sam Finkel. In Markuszow.

 

 

 

MARKUSZOW PARTISANS
Markuszow Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Wladek Edelsztejn (Edelstein) Markuszow Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora  
Dawid Etynger Markuszow Murdered in 1943  
Josef Fiszbein Markuszow, 1923 Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora  
Szloma Goldwasser Markuszow Murdered 1943-1944  
Chil Gothelf Markuszow, ~1915 Australia  
Ita Gothelf Markuszow, 1919 Australia? Married to Chiel
Jacob Gothelf Markuszow, 1919? Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora  
Yerucham Gothelf Markuszow Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora  
Mordechai Kerschenbaum (Kerszenbaum) Markuszow Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora Photo available
Moshe Martin Kirszenbojm Markuszow Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora Photos available
Szmuel Laks Markuszow Died January 27, 1988 in Israel  
Wladek "Wolf" Laks Markuszow Murdered in 1943  
Chaja Loterstein Markuszow Paris, France  
Michael Loterstein Markuszow, 1924 Paris, France Photo available
(unknown) Mikoi Russia Murdered Non-Jew
Szlomo Morel Garbow, 1919 Died in 2007 in Israel Falsely accused of war crimes by Poland.
Yitzchak Morel Garbow Murdered in 1943  
Moshe Pelz (Marcin Pelc) Markuszow, 1917 Israel Escaped from the Jastkow Labor Camp
Simon Rabiner Markuszow Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora Photos available
Israel Isser Rosenberg, commander Markuszow, 1919 Killed by accident in 1943  
Bella Rubinstein Markuszow Died in USA Wife of Dawid
Blimka Rubinstein Markuszow Died in USA Photo available
Dawid Rubinstein Markuszow Died in USA  
Sever Shmuel Rubinstein Markuszow Died in New York Photo available
Moshe Sznaider Markuszow? ?  
(unknown) Tolka Kharkov, Ukraine Murdered in February, 1943 Non-Jew
Hanka or Chancia Tomalewicz Markuszow Israel  
Wladek Tomalewicz Markuszow Israel  
Shmuel Toper (Topper) Markuszow Murdered in 1944 at Bug River  
Stefan Tuman Markuszow Brazil  
Dawid Weingarten Markuszow? Israel  
Liebl from Markuszow Markuszow Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora son of a shoemaker

 

 


Plater group (L-R): Zelazny "Iron" Ajzenberg, Martin Kirszenbaum, Mordechai "Marczynek" Kirszenbaum, Simon Rabiner.

 

EMILIA PLATER GROUP
Emilia Plater Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Icek Eisenberg (Ajzenberg) Markuszow Murdered 1943-1945  
Salomon "Shlomo" Ejsenberg (Eisenberg) Markuszow, 1916 Died in Tiberius, Israel Photo available; nicknamed Iron ("Zelaszny") Eisenberg
Bronislawa Garbarz (Garbacz) Komarowka Podlaska Israel?  
Szyja Goldberg Lublin, 1900 Died in Israel Testimony available
Josef Iberklejd (Iberkleid) ||| Garbow Murdered 1942-1945  
Emil Shmuel Yager (Jaeger)***, commander Ukraine, 1914 Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora Town of origin was Chaszczowata/Khoshchevatoye
Marcin Kirszenblat 1923 France and Switzerland Changed his name to Marcel Garshon
Mietek Kirszenblat 1911 Australia  
Szymon Malinowski Lomza? Murdered Fought near Trawniki
Berl Mitelberg Lublin? Murdered 1944-1946 Photo available; Escaped from Majdanek CC
Jan Ryk Kurow, Feb. 11, 1917 ? Later fought with Alexander Skotnicki's AL forces
Dora Wassersztrum (Wasserstrom) Markuszow, 1926 Died in Argentina? Married name Zyngel/Cingel
Natan Westelsznajder (Westschneider) Markuszow, 1923 Israel  
Pinkus Ziskind*** Dubno, 1912 Died in 1976 in Israel Photo available; later fought with the Armia Ludowa
Shimon (unknown) ? Kfar Saba, Israel  
unknown Tzigan (Cygan)*** ? Murdered Feb. 4, 1944 at Pryszczowa Gora Nickname of an escaped POW from Lipowa 7

 


Samuel "Mietek" Gruber, partisan leader.

MIETEK (KOZIETULSKI) PARTISANS
Mietek (Kozietulski) Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Boris Dov Berezin*** Niedzwiedzica, 1915 Israel aka Mikolai Berezin; photo available; testimony available (in Yiddish)
Mark Marian Dworecki (Dvaretsky)*** ? Died 1945-1947 in Germany Photo available; was in charge of making bombs
Stefan Finkiel*** Lithuania, 1915 Died in 1996 in Hollywood, Florida Photos available; changed his name to Sam Finkel
Roman Fiszer*** Warsaw? Died in Tel Aviv, Israel Married a woman named Tzesia; fought in the Warsaw Ghetto
Szymon Fuhrman*** Piaski, 1911 Killed by accident 1943-1944 An escaped POW from Lipowa 7
Aron Gotz*** Lwow?, June 2, 1918 Died in March, 1972 in St. Louis, Missouri Photo available
Shmuel Mietec Gruber***, commander Pidhaitsi (Podhajce), 1913 Died in 2006 in New York Changed his name to Samuel Gruber; video testimony available
Adam Halpern ||| Warsaw, 1918 Israel Photo available
Berko or Josef Kaganowicz*** ~1916 Murdered before 1943  
Pejsach "Geniek" Lipman*** Oct. 10, 1907 Murdered  
Jusiek Jerzy Marcinek Markuszow area France Fought with "the Cossaks" of Markuszow
Boris Matros*** 1917 Murdered in 1944  
Jusek Piasecki (Pisacki) Bystrzejowice Murdered in 1945 Fought with "the Cossaks" of Markuszow
Itka Rok ||| Warsaw ? Had a 6 year old son named David
Janek Jankiel Rok ||| Warsaw, 1918 Israel  
Josef Rok ||| Warsaw, 1914 Israel  
Wladek Zeev Rak ||| Warsaw, June 1, 1923 Israel aka Moshe Rok; photo available
Dawid Sajfert*** Brzezany, 1912 Murdered 1943-1945 Photo available
Haim Henryk Schongot*** Chocznia, 1914 Murdered ~1943  
Jankiel Waingarten*** Ostrolenka, 1907 Murdered in March, 1944 Photo available
Vladimir Wolodia Walach ? Murdered  
Shlomo Wallach*** Pidvolochysk, 1912 Murdered in 1944 Photo available
Fabian Wladyslaw Wolstein*** 1917 Israel Photo available; previously imprisoned at Altengrabow
Hanka Zelman ||| Warsaw, 1924 Tel Aviv, Israel  
Andreiov or Andrejow*** ? Murdered in 1943-1944 An escaped POW from Lipowa 7
(unknown) Maczin*** ? Likely murdered An escaped POW from Lipowa 7

 


Nachum Knopfmacher, left, and Michael Knopfmacher (Michael Kaftori), right.


Lichtenberg group partisans.


Zev Litwak, left; Shenka from Wlodawa, right.


From left: Moshe Peshalis, Motel Barbanel, his cousins Simcha Barbanel and Chanina Barbanel (skip the head
between them). Unknown, the uncle Gedalia "Geniek" Barbanel, unknown, and unknown.


Partisan Avigdor (Wigdor) Shporer in Lublin, 1944 (left side).

WLODAWA PARTISANS
Wlodawa Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Chaim Ajzen Hrubieszow, 1923 Australia Changed his name to Henry Steel; photo available; testimony available;
later fought with the Molotova partisans
Chaim Barbanel Wlodawa Murdered in 1944 in Maryanka by AK  
Chanina Barbanel Marianka, 1922 New Jersey Changed his name to Henry Barbanel; photos available; testimony available
Chanche Barbanel Wlodawa SURVIVED  
Gedalia "Geniek" Barbanel Wlodawa, 1926 Hadera, Israel  
Motel Barbanel Wlodawa, 1907 Died in 1991 in USA Rachmiel Barbanel's brother
Shimon "Sam" Barbanel Marianka, 1918 Massachusetts Nicknamed Simcha from Marianka; Photo available
Yankel Barbanel (()) Dubeczno, 1925 Los Angeles Changed his name to Jack Barbanel; nicknamed "Vuyo"; Photo available
Yosel Barbanel Marianka Murdered in 1943-1945 Brother of Simcha and Chanina; their father was Rachmiel
Bollek Beckerman Wlodawa, 1924 Died in 2013 in Florida Changed his name to Bob Becker
Asalke "Ilke" Borensztejn Wlodawa Murdered in 1943  
Chaske Broisblat

 

Wlodawa, 1925 Florida  
Dawid Cin      
Dawid Citrin      
Hershel Citrin      
Moshe Joel Citrin       
Moshe Cyn      
Nasan Cyn      
Majer Deresz      
Szymon Erlich      
Moshe Farbman      
Mishke Feldman      
Isralke Srulke Fiszman / Fiszbein      
Chaim Fiszman (())      
Josef Freitag      
Manya Friedman      
Shmuel Friedman      
Samek Sasha Ganz      
Lovka Leon Gilderman      
Srulka Glincman      
Yankele Glincman      
Yushke Glincman      
Mordko Grunwald      
Chaim Hindel      
Bolek Huberman      
Zeev Wolf Jungsztajn      
Josef Kahan      
David Knopfmacher      
Michael Knopfmacher      
Pesia Kreis Knopfmacher      
Nachem Knopfmacher      
Nuchem Knopfmacher      
Aron Kot      
Chawa Kot      
Chuna Kot      
Lejb Kot      
Abraham Lebenbaum      
Avigdor Lederman      
Srulke Lederman      
Yankele Lederman      
Leon Lemberger Lukowski      
Shlomo Lemberger      
Moshe Lichtenberg, leader      
Sam Lustigman      
Leonid Leon Nemzer, co-leader      
Abram "Abie" Pomeranc      
Cyla Pomeranc      
Henka Pomeranc      
Jurek Pomeranc      
Szija Pomeranc      
Motel Rabinowitz      
Jankiel Rolnik      
Motel Rozenberg (()), co-leader      
Fajga Rosenblum      
Mendel Rosenblum      
Zelik Rosenblum      
Isaac Rotenberg*      
Israel Rotenberg      
Greta Borger Rotstein      
Israel Moshe Rotstein      
Abram Szeftel      
Pinkas Szeftel (Sheftel)      
Sasha Shienko (())      
Moszek Spiwak*** (())      
Leon Szporer      
Widgdor Szporer      
Szmuel Sztul      
Tema Kreis Turkienec (())      
Bebale Wajsman (())      
Cham Wajsman (())      
Chaim Wolf/Wulf***      
Ludwik Wurcelman      
Hershel Zimmerman/Cymerman      
Isa Zylbersztejn      
Chazan Lejb unknown      
Mishka unknown      
Moshe the Butcher      
Pearl from Hola      
Tuvia from Kalisz      
Vashka the Russian      

 


Back row, from left: Harold Werner, Symcha Barbanel, Dora Grynszpan, Abram Grynszpan, Wladek Litwak;
front, from left: Chanina Henry Barbanel, Abram the Patzan, Shienka from Wlodawa.

 


From top, left: Dudkin Rubinstein, Jurek Pomeranc, Lonka Chaim Fefferkorn, Lova (Leon) Zitzman, Chil Grynszpan,
Yehuda Junak Milsztajn, Josef Rolnik, unknown Russian fighter. Kneeling, from left: Abie Rubinstein (Abram the Patzan),
Henry Barbanel, and Kirlow Rubinstein. The Grynspzan partisans in the Parczew forests, circa 1943.

 

 

 

 


Dudkin Rubenstein (on the left), Yechiel Grynszpan (on the right), commander of this partisan unit;
Chaim Feferkorn (kneeling on the left) and Leon Lyowa Zitzman (kneeling on the right).

 


Unit commander Chil Grynspan, left, with Josef Rolnik (center) and Dudkin Rubinstein.

 

 

 

 


Leon Sittzmann (Zitzman), Joe Holm, and Josef Rolnik.

 


Partisans Zeev Litwack (Velvale the Patzan) and Chil Grynszpan, immigration photos to Brazil.

 

 

 

 

Those below listed with a @ after their names also fought with the Wlodawa partisans, listed above.
There was significant overlap between the two groups.

 

HOLOD #2 (CHIL) PARTISANS
Holod Battalion #2 (Chil) Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Jakob Ajnspan Wlodawa Brazil?  
Hannah Berkowitz@ Skorodnica, Oct. 10, 1910 Florida Testimony available
Hershel Berkowitz@ Skorodnica Florida Photo available
Shaindel "Sonia" Bernhard Komarowka Podlaska Canada Became Sonia Wajstaub
Szymek Bernhard (Berhardt) Komarowka Podlaska, Nov. 20, 1924 Winnipeg, Canada Changed his name to Simon Berchard
Chaim Eliezar Blumenkranz ? Murdered  
Abraham Cholomski Zaliszcze New York  
Chancia Cholomski Zaliszcze ?  
Rostka Duman Cholomski@ Zaliszcze New York Became Rose Holm; photo available
Yurek Cholomsky@ Zaliszcze Died in 2003 in New York Changed his name to Joe Holm; photos available
Abram Cukier Yekaterinburg, 1920 USA?  
Josef Jusiek Cynowiec*** Pinsk, 1916 Haifa, Israel Married a Jewish partisan named Irka
Abram Czarny*** Lachowicze, 1915 Likely murdered Photo available
Berko Ekhauz (Eckhauz) Parczew Murdered  
Boruch "Butchke" Elbaum Parczew, 1901 Died in Sweden Occupation: surgeon
Edek Elbaum Parczew, 1916 Sweden Also called Ela Elbaum
Chaim Engel* Lodz/Brudzew, 1916 Died in 2003 in Branford, CT Video testimony available
Marcus Erdepel Konskowola, 1910 Died in 1973 in Israel aka Mordechai Erdepel; photo available
Andre Etman Parczew, Sept. 2, 1935 New York Testimony available
Judka Yehuda Fajgenbaum 1927 Rishon Le Tzion, Israel Photo available
Chaim Lonka Feferkorn@ Parczew, 1921 Israel Photos available
Ada Fiszer* Jaroslaw/Wieliczka, Jan. 1, 1915 Israel Married Jitschak Lichtman; photo available; testimony available
David Fridman (()) Sosnowica Died in USA Nicknamed "David the Tall One from Sosnowica"
Fajga Zipora Frydman Parczew, ~1930 Israel Became Zipora Koren; Photo available
Ignacy Yitzchak Frymer Lublin, 1908 Died 1977 in Germany  
Hilda Gimpel Izbica Kujowska, 1917 Los Angeles, CA Became Hilda Eisen; photo available; testimony available
Leon Laib Giterman*** Lutowiska, Nov. 16, 1914 Israel? Photo available
Jakub Glazer 1914 Alive in 1944  
Kitty "Cathy" Gokkes* The Hague, 1925 Died of typhus on Sept. 20, 1944 Called Cathy; tall with red hair; Was with Ursula
Stern and Ada Lichtman after Sobibor escape
Wladek Mordechai Goldfarb* Piaski Luterskie, March 15, 1920 Died June 8, 1984 in Haifa, Israel Photos available
Dawid Goldberg ? Alive in 1944  
Zygmunt Zalman Goldman Parczew, 1915 Died in Tel Aviv  
Sam Goldwasser@ Parczew, 1926 Montreal, Canada Nicknamed "Polimiot"; photos available
Leon Greenblatt Grimblovsky Stary Orzechow Israel Photo available; testimony available (in Hebrew)
Abram Grynszpan@ Sosnowica, 1913 Brazil Photo available
Dora Lask Grynszpan@ Lodz, Jan. 20, 1922 Brazil Photo available; testimony available
Yechiel "Chil" Grynszpan@, commander Sosnowica, July 6, 1916 Brazil Photos available; testimony available
Aryeh Helfgot*** Wielun, 1916 Israel Leader of partisan group of eight fighters
Mietek Himelblat (Kimmelblat) Lublin?, 1906 Alive in 1944  
Ella Hipszman Warsaw, Dec. 8, 1932 Massachusetts Testimony available
Yankel Jakob Holender Wlodawa SURVIVED  
Josef Honigsblum Lubartow/Lublin, 1916 Alive in 1944  
Srul Jakubowicz Wielun? Israel?  
Aron Kodenzak Nowy Orzechow Murdered in 1943 near Glebokie  
Itzhak Korn Parczew/Ostrow Lubelski Murdered  
Sucha Korn Parczew Died in Israel  
Zalman Korn Parczew, 1919 Murdered in 1945 near Lodz by AK Called Zalman from Parczew
Moshe Krochmal Kodeniec Murdered in 1943 near Glebokie  
Akiba Kuperman Parczew, 1914 Israel Photo available
Jankiel Kupersztajn (Kupersztejn) Parczew, 1911 Israel  
Lejb Kupersztajn Parczew Israel  
Shmuel Kupersztajn Holowno Israel  
Yehuda "Leon" Lerner* Warsaw, 1926 Died Dec. 7, 2007 in Israel Nicknamed "Atleta"; photos available; Was with Boris
Taborinski & Mordechai Goldfarb after Sobibor escape
Icek Lerer 1926 Alive in 1944  
Simcha Lewinson Sosnowica Murdered  
Eliyahu Liberman Parczew Israel Also called Elias Liberman
Itzchak Lichtman* Zolkiewka, Dec. 10, 1908 Israel Photos available
Velval "Wladek" Litwak@ Sosnowica, 1923 Brazil aka Zeev Litwak; nicknamed Velvale the Patzan^;
Photos and testimony available
Aslek? Margulies* Zyrardow, 1921 Died in 1984 in Israel aka Abraham Margulies; photo available
Abraham Milech Parczew, 1917 Canada  
David Milech Parczew, 1928 Died in 2002 in Canada  
Moshe Milech Parczew Canada  
Abraham Miller Lublin? Israel? Fought with Skotnicki's AL forces
Cypora Miller@ Holowno?, 1922 Israel?  
Genia Milsztajn (Millstein) Lublin, 1919 Israel?  
Junak Milsztajn (Millstein) Serock, 1925 Israel aka Yehuda Millstein; photo available
Nahum Plotnicki* Belarus, 1913 Died in Israel Photos available; changed his name to Chaim Plotnikow
Josef Pankenfeld ? France?  
Szaja Prikam@ 1915 Israel?  
Irena Rubinek (Robanek) 1923 Alive in 1944  
Josef Yefim Rolnik Kharkov, Jan. 15, 1915 Florida Photos available; testimony available;
cousin of Yankel from Kodeniec
Sewer Rosen (Rozen) Kurow, 1922 Died in Raciborz, Poland  
Hershel Rubenstein (Rubensztejn) ||| @ Warsaw Murdered in 1944-1945 Communist activist; nicknamed "Commisar"
Josef Rubin Parczew, Sept. 25, 1930 Florida Testimony available
Abram Rubinstein Zahajki, 1927-1930 Detroit Photo available; nicknamed Abram the Patzan^
Bronislawa Rubinstein Wlodawa, Jan. 27, 1927 Died in 2013 in Los Angeles Became Bronia Rubinstein; married Sol
Dudkin Dawid Rubinstein Zahajki (Zahaika), 1919 Detroit Changed his name to David Russell
Itzik Rubinstein Zahajki Murdered?  
Kerlow Rubinstein Zahajki Died in Detroit, Michigan  
Lewek Rubinstein Zahajki, 1922 Murdered?  
Szlema "Senka" Rubinstein Zahajki, Jun. 26, 1915 Died in 2011 in in Los Angeles Changed his name to Sol Rubinstein
Josef Ruchelsman (Reishelsman) Jlawa/Olsztyn, 1915 Israel?  
Orsula Stern-Buchheim* Essen, Aug. 28, 1928 Died in 1985 in Ashdod, Israel Became Ilana Safran; photos available
Itsak Suchowolski Parczew, Oct. 5, 1922 Died Sept., 2010 in Illinois Changed his name to Irving Wolsk; testimony available
Berek Bernard Szwarc (Schwartz)*** Russia, 1903 Murdered Photo available
Szloma Szwarcz Hrubieszow, 1923 Israel  
Chaim Schiefenbauer Lwow, 1917 Alive in 1944  
Boris Taborinsky* Slonim, 1917 Russia or Israel Later joined Soviet partisans
David Tempy Parczew, 1904 Murdered in 1946 in Parczew  
Mindla Torbiner May 16, 1916 Died in 2005 in Canada Became Mindel Shupak
Israel "Srulke" Trager* Chelm, 1906 Died in 1969 in Israel Photos available here and here
Mendel Turbiner (Torbiner) Parczew?, 1915 Murdered in 1946 in Parczew  
Reuven Turbiner Sosnowica Murdered in 1943 near Glebokie  
Henrik Wajnsztajn Hlohovec, 1925 Alive in 1944 Sent from Novaky Camp to Lublin region, 3/22/1942
Ita Wertman 1910 Alive in 1944  
Selma Wijnberg* Zwolle, May 15, 1922 Branford, CT Became Selma Engel; photos available
Abram Winderbaum Lomazy, May 8, 1923 Florida Changed his name to Adam Winder; video testimony available;
later fought with Skotniki's AL forces
Lyowa Zitzman Parczew Israel aka Leon Zitzman; photos available
Abram Zisman (Zysman) Parczew, 1903 Murdered in 1946 in Parczew Nicknamed Abram Bochian
Abram from Zmiarka Zmiarka Murdered in 1943 near Siedliszcze by AK  
Dennis from Sosnowica Sosnowica Murdered in 1943 near Siedliszcze by AK  
Donachy from Zahajki Zahajki Likely murdered Nickname of a woman at the Tabor camp site
Eli from Parczew Parczew Israel?  
Harry from Warsaw Warsaw ?  
Shainche from Ostrow Ostrow Lubelski Died of illness in 1943  

According to Jack Nusan Porter, who has studied the Soviet partisan movement, "If, as can probably be estimated, one in ten Soviet POWs avoided capture (by the Germans), then the total would come to more than 300,000 stragglers. The Soviet POWs became the backbone of the partisan movement (in the Soviet Union). Continues Porter, "For the Jew, no place was safe, but the forests were safer than the ghettos and the death camps. One of the greatest of all dangers to the partisans was the roving bands of Ukrainian nationalists, especially the Banderovtskys under fascist-nationalist Stepan Bandera." The number of Jews involved in the Soviet partisan units in Wolyn numbered around 1,600-1,800 persons.



 


Former Soviet prisoners of war -- Jews from Russia who were transported from Minsk to Sobibor.
A gathering in memory of the uprising. Pictured (left to right): Jefim Litwinowsky, Arkady Wayspapir,
Alexander Pechersky, Alexei Waytzen, Nahum Plotnitsky, Simeon Rozenfeld.

 


A mixed unit that included 7 Jewish partisans. Photo taken in November, 1943 in Drahichyn, Belarus.The photo includes
members of the Shish branch of the Molotov Brigade (Otriad Regiment). The Jews in the brigade were: Leon Nemzer, 2nd row, left
side kneeling and Siomka, next to him in the leather jacket; as well as, 3rd row, 5th from the left moving to the right: Chaim Ajzen,
Mechel Knopfmacher, Sashka Ganz, Motel Rabinowich, and Sirotchka (nickname, full name not known).

 

SOVIET PARTISANS
Soviet Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Alek Abugov Odessa, 1913 Israel Led the Abugov partisan unit
unknown Adler Tarnogrod ? Fought in Kovpak's unit
Teodor Albrecht Ukraine, 1912    

 


General Zemsta (aka Skotnicki), the Jewish commander of the Armia Ludowa forces.

 

 



Unidentified fighters in Markuszow between 1943 and 1946. Seem to be affiliated with the Armia Ludowa.


The People's Army (Armia Ludowa, known as Gwardia Ludowa or "The People's Guard") was one of the two main military
organizations of the Polish underground. Jewish partisan Dr. Temczyn is in this photo with General Michal "Rola" Zymierski (top,
center) of the Armia Ludowa. Top, from left: Jan Czechowicz, Stanislaw Kotek-Agroszewski, Zymierski, Grab Widerkowski,
Stanislaw Szot. Bottom, from left Waclaw Czyzewski, Cien, Dr. Michael Temczyn. Photo from 1944 in Parczew.


Two fighters from the Polish underground "Armia Ludowa" in the Krasnik area. Photographed in 1944.


A group of fighters from the Polish underground "Armia Ludowa" in the Krasnik area, 1944.

Mischa Stahlhammer, a Jewish fighter from Krasnik who later went to Sweden.


ARMIA LUDOWA PARTISANS
Armia Ludowa Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Staszek Bialek ? ? Non-Jew
abc      

 


HRUBIESZOW PARTISANS - BETAR / ZZW
Note: An article about the Hrubieszow partisans is available here.
Hrubieszow Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Dawid Erlich Grabowiec Murdered Photo available
Asher Frenkel Warsaw, ~1915 Murdered in 1942 in Hrubieszow Photo available
Chaim Haus (Hausz) Warsaw, 1920 Murdered in 1944 at Majdanek Photo available
Israel Kampner Kalisz, 1923 Murdered near Hrubieszow  
Felek Langleben Warsaw Murdered near Zamosc Photo available
Yitzhak Nozyce Warsaw, ~1920 Murdered September 1942 Photo available
Henryk Jechiel Rozen ? Murdered near Hrubieszow  
Moshe Szabszyk Warsaw Murdered at Sobibor Photo available
Chewja Wicer Hrubieszow Murdered in route to base in Werbkowice  
Israel Zelcer Zdolbunov, 1913 Executed in September, 1942  
Julek Brandt Hrubieszow Murdered ~1943  


HRUBIESZOW PARTISANS - LOCAL UNDERGROUND
Hrubieszow Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Chaim Ajzen Hrubieszow, 1923 Australia see Wlodawa partisans above
Berl Babat Zamosc    
Shmuel Becker Hrubieszow    
Berel Blum Tomaszow Lubelski    
Shlomo Boden Chelm Murdered  
Shlomo Brandt Hrubieszow    
Simcha Estig/Ajstig Grabowiec    
Froim Farber Szczebreszyn Israel  
Kalman Firszt Hrubieszow    
Moshe Micflikier Chelm    
Lolek Perec      
Zindel Rajwer/Reiver Szczebreszyn    
Malka Rub Grabowiec    
Chana Szyszler Grabowiec    
Shifra Szyszler Grabowiec    
Israel Wajs      


HRUBIESZOW PARTISANS - DROR / ZOB
Hrubieszow Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Bertold Dobrin Germany, 1897 Murdered Nov. 4, 1943 at Poniatowa Photo available
Saul Dobuchna Warsaw, 1923 Murdered September 1942 Photo available
Yitzhak Dobuchno Warsaw Murdered  
Abraham Finkelstein Warsaw, 1920 Murdered near Hrubieszow  
Chavka Folman Kielce, 1924 Died in Israel Photos available
Aron Frumer Hrubieszow, 1920 Murdered May 5, 1942 in Hrubieszow  
Gedalia Gershuni Bialystok, 1914 Murdered August 1942 Photo available
Jakub Jankiel Kac Mogielnica, 1917 Murdered  
Franka Kirszenbojm Hrubieszow Murdered in 1942  
Dina Lewin Lodz, 1923 Murdered near Hrubieszow  
Ida Malkin ||| ? Murdered in 1943-1946  
Yochanan Morgensztern Zamosc, 1905 Murdered May 6, 1943 in Warsaw Photos available
Frumka Plotnicka ~1914 Murdered on Aug. 3, 1943 in Bedzin Photo available
Moniek Ringwirc (Rajngiewerc) Radomsk, 1916 Murdered in fall, 1942 in Hrubieszow Photo available; his girlfriend was Pesia Furmanowicz
Moshe Rubinczyk (Rubentshik) Belarus, 1914 Murdered Sept. 3, 1942 Photo available
Ruth Szklar Warsaw, ~1923 Murdered near Hrubieszow Photo available



BYCHAWA / KRASNIK PARTISANS
Soviet Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Pinchas Akerman Bychawa Israel  
Umer Adamanov      
       

 


Members of the Kosciuszko partisan unit.

 


Members of a partisan unit that included Sender Bronsztajn.

 


Abraham Bron, Hersh Brener (tentative), Yosef Grosman (tentative).

 


Right side: Chaim Blacher (tentative); 4th from right: Hersh Brener (tentative) .
Second from left: Rifka Bursztyn; 4th from left: Hava Bursztyn
.

 


Back row, l-r: Abraham Bron, Szija Gutwein (partisan name Kovel); Mordko Grynbaum; Shlomo Zismelech;
Yaakov Bursztyn; David (last name unknown), unknown, Yosef Griezman. Front: Rivka Bursztyn & husband Mordko; unknown;
Hava Fabrikant Bursztyn (wife of Yaakov Burstyn).

 


Left to right, first row (ground): Haika Grynbaum (Hela Schwarz in Brazil), Hava Burstein, unknown, Mischa Stahlhammer. Others not identified.

BRON PARTISANS
Bron Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Berish Berman Studzianki Likely survived aka Bolek Berman
Hillel Borenstein Annopol, 1921 Ontario, Canada  
Manes Brafman Krasnik Israel  
Ester Brand Krasnik area Brazil Became Esther Sztamfater; family camp
Abraham "Adolf" Bron Krasnik, 1902 Died in 1983 in Brazil Photo available
Hersz Brones (Bronze) Krasnik, 1908 Israel Photo available
Hersz Broner Krasnik, 1932 Survived Age 11
Abraham Bursztyn Studzianki Bronx, NY  
Mordko Marian
Grynbaum Burstzyn
Blinow, 1922 Died in 2004 in Brazil Photo available; Escaped from Janiszow Labor Camp
Daniel Datum Krasnik, 1917 Brazil Testimony available
Zvi Datum Krasnik, 1921 Brazil Testimony available
Yosef Elbaum Trzydnik ?  
Avraham Fogel Weglinek ?  
Eli Fiszman Rachow, 1928 New York Also spelled: Ely Fishman
Yaakov Farber Krasnik, 1901? Israel  
Josef Greizman Modliborzyce Israel  
Shmuel Gringold Szastarka Survived "Shimek from Szastarka"
Szija Gutwein1912 ? Brooklyn, NY, USA  
Yosef Karfer Zarzecze ?  
Yehoshua Kleinman Lublin, 1923 Murdered  
P. Kristal ? Israel  
Zalman Lederfejn 1901 Died 1992 in Israel  
(unknown) Met Grojec ?  
Reuven Pintele Zalucze Murdered ~1942 Rescued Jews from the Janiszow labor camp
Yehoshua Pintel Trzydnik Murdered ~1943  
(unknown) Prohor or Prochors Russia ? Non-Jew
(unknown) Rubinsztajn Deblin ?  
Leon Schor Mielec, 1934 New York Testimony available
Abe Spiwak/Spievak Modliborzyce New Jersey, USA  
Shlomo Zysmelech (Zysmilch) Tarnogrod Israel  
Adek from Potok Potok Murdered in 1945  
Avram from Chrzanow Chrzanow ?  

A group of partisans numbering around 30 Jews was organized by Yitzchak Kleinman in the location
Stara Wies, halfway between Radzyn Podlaski and Kock. Most of the members were escapees from the
Radzyn Podlaskie ghetto. In February and March of 1943, this group carried out successful combat
against the Germans on the Radzyn-Kock road and also in Stara Wies. The group was eliminated in
spring 1943. A separate group, likely very small (perhaps a dozen people), was organized by the
Pantshek brothers, whose surname was spelled various ways including Paczek and Ponczek. The
group was eliminated by Polish Armia Krajowa forces in November, 1943, per Shmuel Krakowski.

RADZYN PODLASKI PARTISANS
Radzyn Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Moshe AgmonRadzyn Podlaski   
Icek Klajnman, leader Murdered in 1942 
Lejb Lew, co-leader Murdered in 1943 
Avrum Pantszek   
Berel Ponczek   
Fajga PonczekAbt. 1930, Radzyn Podlaski  
Gershon Henoch Ponczek  Leader of Poale Zion in Radzyn 
Lejzor Panczek, co-leader Murdered in 1942 
Hersh Panczek   
Tziva Panczek   
Yaakov Ponczek   
unknown Tunkelszwarcz   



Partisans who previously escaped from Sobibor. Includes Shmuel Szmajzner (back, 2nd from left), Abram Kohn
(2nd row, far right), Kalman Wewryk (2nd row, second from right) and others not identified.


MISCELLANEOUS PARTISANS

Miscellaneous Lublin Partisans - NameBirth dataAfter the warAdditional notes
Ludka Arbetsman   
Froim Glajchman   
Jakob Klapper   
Mordko Szlajcher   


Symbol Guide (Legend)
* Escapee from the Sobibor Death Camp.
||| Escapee from the Warsaw Ghetto.
*** Escapee from Lipowa Street Camp, Lublin.
(()) Escapee from Adampol Labor Camp near Wlodawa.
@ Grynszpan group but combined with the Wlodawans (Lichtenberg group).
^ Note: "Patzan" was a nickname signifying a small person.

MISCELLANEOUS GROUPS

Kunitsky group:
Mordechai Szlajcher from Bilgoraj.

Unknown group:

Unknown group:

PARTISANS TODAY


Partisans Isadore Farbstein, Rostka Holm, and Frank Blaichman.


ADDITIONAL SOURCES:

BOOKS:

- Azoy iz es geven (The Way It Was, Yiddish), Buenos Aires, 1948 by Jonas Turkow.
- Chaim Ajzen Remembers by Henry Steel
- I Chose Life by Samuel Gruber
- Codename Barber: The Story of Partisan Mischa Stahlhammer by Semmy Stahlhammer
- Die Numen Is -- Folk by Shmuel Persov
- Escape from Sobibor by Richard Raschke
- Fighting Back: A Memoir of Jewish Resistance in WWII by Harold Werner
- From the Ashes of Sobibor: A Story of Survival by Thomas Toivi Blatt
- Fugitives of the Forest: Heroic Stories of Resistance & Survival in WWII by Gerald Levine
- Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past by Martin Gilbert
- Hurbn un gvure fun shtetl Markuszow (Destruction and Heroism, Town of Markuszow). Yiddish. Tel Aviv, 1955.
- Jewish Resistance in Nazi-Occupied Eastern Europe by Reuben Ainsztein
- Imferno em Sobibor/Portuguese (Hell in Sobibor) by Stanislaw Szmajzner
Labor Camps and Communities in the Lublin District
The Ludmilowka Pogrom
- Martyrdom and Revolt. Documents and Testimonies by Miriam Novitch, New York, 1980.
.. Includes several testimonies from Sobibor uprising survivors who fought as partisans.
- Pogaduszki: The memoirs of Stanislaw Sierpinski. Haifa, 2005. In Polish.
The Precarious Liberation of the Janiszow Forced Labor Camp
- Promise at Sobibor: A Jewish Boy's Story of Revolt by Fiszel Bialowitz
- Rather Die Fighting: A Memoir of WWII by Frank Blaichman
- Reluctant Soldier: A Jewish Partisan's Story by Jakob Friedman
- The Reminiscences of Dov Berezinby Mikolai Berezin
- Sobibor: Martyrdom and Revolt by Miriam Novitch. Holocaust Library, 1980.
- To Sobibor and Back: An Eyewitness Account by Kalman Wewryk
- Spotkanie z ziemia by Leon Bielski. Ksiazka i Wiedza. Warsaw, 1965.
- Story of a Secret State: My Report to the World by Jan Karski
- Szmul Zygielbojm: Profile of Partisan Hero by Ronald Cohn and Jesse Russel
- They Were Many by Binyamin West
- They Fought Back by Yuri Suhl
- Through Forests and Pathways by Sanel Rozenson
- The Undefeated by Shiye Goldberg
- The Wars of the Jewish Partisans in Eastern Europe by Moshe Kaganovitch
- War of the Doomed: Jewish Armed Resistance in Poland, 1942-1944 by Shmuel Krakowski
- The Witch Doctor: Memoirs of a Partisan by Dr. Michael Temchin

ARTICLES:

- About Jewish Partisan Frank Blaichman
- Armies of the Young: Child Soldiers in War and Terrorism; pps. 48-51 discuss partisan children in
.. the Lublin Forests
- Fate of Some of the Sobibor Survivors (see also: Sobibor Remembrance Project)
- From a Prisoner's Camp to a Partisan Troop by Alufi and Barkeli in "Aishishuk", pages 77-78.
.. Profile of partisan Mordechai Glebocki, aka Shneor Glembotzky.
- Iberlebungen fun a Veloner Krigsgefangenen in Sefer Zikaron le-Kehillat Wielun.
.. Tel Aviv, 1971, pp. 380-384. Testimony of Aryeh Lejb Helfgot.
- Jewish Revolts and Uprisings in the Lublin District
- Long Valley Man's Memoir Tells Heroic Life of Partisan
- "The Polish Underground and the Jews: A Reassessment of Home Army Commander Tadeusz Bor-
.. Komorowski's Order 116 Against Banditry" by John Lowell Armstrong. Cites the testimony of Krasnik
.. partisan Hersz Broner. The Slavonic and East European Review 72, no. 2 (April 1994): 273.
- Rescue of Jews from the Wlodawa Ghetto
- Rise and Fall of Wlodawa - from the Yizkor Book
- Russian Jews and the Sobibor Escape
- Sobibor Survivors' Testimonies (see also: Sobibor Remembrance Project)
- Understanding the Polish Obsession with Salomon Morel

FILMS:

- Belzec Survivor Braha Rauffmann
- Escape from Sobibor
- Poland, Personally: Featuring Michael Kaftori, Wlodawa Partisan
- Profile of survivors Blaichman and Gruber
- Shmuel Mietek Gruber Video Testimony
- Tribute Video to Cesia and Frank Blaichman & Rose and Joe Holm

OTHER LINKS:

- Definitions of Important Terms Related to Jewish Partisans
- Lasting Memory Foundation: Lublin District Commemorations
- Betar Partisans in Hrubieszow
- Hersh Zimmerman's Holocaust Resistance
- Chaim Ajzen's Holocaust Resistance
- In Defense of Salomon Morel
- Polish Resistance Movements and the Jews

HOT LINKS
Chelm.freeyellow.com Index
E-mail: GenealogyKid20@aol.com

***