Memorial to the Victims of the Trawniki Concentration Camp

SUMMARY: In June 1942, the former sugar mill in Trawniki became a forced-labor camp for
Jews. It was liquidated in September 1943 and from that point forward, the camp served as a
sub-camp of the Lublin/Majdanek Death Camp. A list of the SS men at Trawniki is available here.

PRE-WAR: Trawniki is a village in Swidnik County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland. It is
the seat of the administrative district called Gmina Trawniki. It lies approximately 33 km southeast of the
regional capital, Lublin. According to witness Jozef K, born in 1925, there were about 30 Jewish families
living in Trawniki before World War II. They were mainly traders. They lived near the Trawniki train
station, where they had their shops and also a synagogue. The nearest and only Jewish cemetery in all
of the Trawniki gmina was in Biskupice, Poland.

HOLOCAUST: In 1942, Trawniki served as a transit camp for local Jews. After a "selection" was
conducted by the Piaski Judenrat, several hundred Polish, German, and Austrian Jews were transported
to Trawniki. Before the deportation to the Belzec killing center intended for the next day, many of the
victims were locked up in a large barn overnight. Between 200 and 500 of the Jews died there from
suffocation. The next morning, their bodies were put into wagons destined for Belzec.

During the summer of 1942, Trawniki began to serve as a forced-labor camp for Jews. The labor camp
was built right next to the training camp for the Auxiliary police, called Trawniki men, created in 1941.

The following individuals were transferred to Trawniki or Biskupice, Lublin District, from another
part of Europe for slave labor. All of them were Jewish and can be assumed to have been murdered.

Transferred to Trawniki

Ariela Adler
Johanna Aschner Lewy
Joan Ajzenberg
Jerzy Batlay
Chana Hania Batlay
Tami Bekman
Marta Bekman
Szloma Birnbaum
Lea and Moshe Borstein (from Komarow/Zamosc)
Marien Brenska
Shoshona Chelemer Leizerowicz
Norbert and Mina Czaezkes (from Lwow)
Helene Chilf
Roza Damenstein
Norbert Dawidowski
Zdial Dawidowski
Benedikt Fell
Betty and Greta Feith (from Borken, Germany)
Henryk Feliks
Josef Frankenhaus (from Ahaus/Berlin, Germany)
Mala Rajzla Flajszer
Szama Flusfeder
Ilse Friedlaender
Zisha Frydman (from Sochaczew/Warsaw ghetto resistance)
Moshe Goldblatt (Rabbi of Ostrow Mazowiecka) and his 6 children
Moritz Glassner
Heinrich and Tami Haas (from Ligsla)
Chaim and Leonora Halpern (from Tarnopol)
Karol Halpern
Dora Halpern
Friedel Heinz
Lieselotte Rosenbaum Heine (born in Forste in 1909)
Klara Herbst
Rudolf Herbst
Shlomo and Yetta Hercberg (from Zamosc)
Elisabeth Hirsh
Zendel Holender
Daniel Jungewirt (from Tarnow)
S. Kaner
Ida Marx Kaufmann (from Berlin, Germany)
Wlodzimierz Karko
Peter Kauffmann
Fathe Kern
Feliks Klajmic
Erna Klein
Father of Aron Kreshkovski (from Warsaw)
Moshe Leizerowicz, a journalist (from Warsaw)
Rachela Lilienfeld
Rywka Meyer
Perla Meyer
Izaak and Rozalia Mingelgrin (from Brzesko)
Henryk Moscisker
Marian Neuteich, a conductor, master cellist and quartet player (photo)
Babette Pollak
Jakob Preschner
Alice Reichmann
Sabina Roth
Minke Segal
Oskar Suhl (born 1920 in Leipzig)
Alfred and Adela Sznajder (from Kamiz)
Gizela Szpigelglas
Jozef Szulfrid
Chaim and Fajga Sztark (from Lezko)
Dr. Wlodzimierz Szyfrys (Warsaw)
Zelig Tha(?)
Franziska That
Yaakov Trukenheim
Marceli Wachtel
Ludwig Wallach
Jakob Wechsler
Bernhard Weinstok
Eva Wajzer (Wajzor)
Fryderyka Wajzer (Wajzor)
Eliezer Wulfram
Antonia Wysoki-Kamien
Henrieta Wysoki-Kamien
Jerzy Wyzsogrod (Wysznogrod)

Note: Norbert Czaezkes (Lwow), Izaak Mingelgrin (Brzesko), Alfred Sznajder (Kamirz), Chaim Halpern (Tarnopol),
Chaim Sztark (Leszko), and Henryk Haas (Ligsla) may have been sent from Trawniki to Biskupice.

Transferred to Biskupice, Lublin District

Markus Barenhorn (Sewerany)
Meyer Baumol (Bukowsko)
Kohos Barenhersz (Rawa Ruska)
Schmuel Zneker Censor (Rzeszow)
Schaia Eichenbaum (Chrzanow)
Simcha Goldman (Tarnow)
Leiser Goldstein (Przemysl)
Edward Heisberger
David Newmann
Samson Juda Rad (Zolkew)
Julius Weisberger
Moses Weisberger

Two camps were separated only by the original stone wall that surrounded the abandoned sugar factory.
After being trained, the Trawniki men participated in the extermination of Jews from Belzec, Sobibor
and Treblinka II. Trawniki also became a storage depot for the victims' clothing from the killing centers.
In June 1942, 20 to 40 Jewish women were brought to the camp to wash, sort and repair clothes.
In summer, 1942, a group of Jews from the Krasnystaw ghetto were sent to Trawniki for slave labor.
In March or April of 1943, a group of Jews from Sierpc ghetto were sent to Trawiki for slave labor.

By May 1, 1942, there were at least 5,633 Jews in the Trawniki labor camp. They were Jews from
Germany, Austria and Slovakia, but most of them were Polish Jews from across the country.

At the beginning, conditions in the camp were quite decent because the Nazis wanted to maintain a high
production level, but that situation changed quite quickly. In winter, the workers did not receive any winter
clothing, so epidemics became omnipresent and the general conditions in the camp deteriorated.

After the uprising in the Sobibor killing center in October 1943, Himmler decided that to prevent this kind
of situation of happening again, he needed to order the killings of Polish Jews in the Lublin District.
On November 3, 1943, the Ernefeste Aktion commenced. Police units, SS, Trawniki men and Battalion
101 shot around 6,000 Jews from Trawniki and Dorohucza. Witness Jozef K., born in 1925, recalls that
during the executions the Nazis turned on the radio to overpower the sound of gunshots. A group of
Jewish workers from Milejow was chosen to burn the victims' corpses and to disperse the ashes. Once
they finished, they were transferred to Lublin/Majdanek and the Trawniki labor camp was dissolved.