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Zamosc is located 30 kilometers northwest of Hrubieszów and 90 km. south and east of Lublin.
Jews in the city date back to at least the late 16th century. Sephardic Jews settled in the city initially
and were later joined by Ashkenazi Jews in the 17th century. By 1765 the Jewish population was 1,905.
The Jewish population in 1921 was 9,383. In 1939, the population was 24,000 with 12,000 Jews. Jews
contributed to 80 percent of the local trade, 65 percent of crafts and 54 percent of industry in the city.
The first wooden synagogue was built in Zamość between 1590 and 1603 at 9 Zamenhofa
Street. The synagogue was restored in 2011. The local community is planning to make it into a museum.
The new synagogue was constructed at 32 Gminna Street in 1872. Between 1909 and 1913 it was
expanded. Destroyed in WWII, it was reconstructed in 1948 and was used as a pre-school. But the
current building of the former small synagogue is used by the Pentecostal Church in Zamość.
Culture among the Jewish community in Zamosc thrived between the First and Second World Wars.
The Haskalah movement had tremendous influence on Zamosc Jews, and as such many renowned
Jewish intellectuals came from Zamosc, among them: Israel ben Moshe, Aleksander Zederbaum,
Salomon Ettinger, Issachar ben Falkenson (born 1852), Icchak Lejb Perec, and Bronisz Huberman.
During the interwar period, there were 4 bookstores, 9 public libraries and 3 large printing houses.
Since 1905, there had been an amateur theater group in the town, founded by Berysz Bekierman.
After a few days of heavy bombardment, which especially damaged the Jewish quarter, the German
Army entered Zamość on September 14, 1939. Immediately after capturing the city, Nazis
organized a series of pogroms, motivated by the desire to loot Jewish property. On Sept. 26, 1939,
the Soviet army entered the city, but handed the city back to the Germans two weeks later, in
accordance with the new Soviet-German demarcation line. Between 5,000 and 7,000 Jews left the city at
the point the Soviet Army withdrew. The remaining Jewish population suffered brutality and persecutions.
Labor camps in the Zamosc area where Jews were sent included: Bortatycze (water works), Klemensow
(agricultural labor), Labunie (airport construction), Mokre (agricultural labor), Ploskie Glowne (construction),
Turkowice (unknown), and Zdanow (airport construction). In 1941, German Luftwaffe began to build
airfields at Mokre and Labunie, near Zamosc. Jewish labor was used in the construction. Groups of
workers from Zamosc were also sent to other labor camps in the Lublin district, including Wysokie Labor
Camp and Janowice Labor Camp. Some Zamosc Jews may have also been deported to Bialobrzegi in
central Poland. Zamosc Jews were also sent to "Kawaler," the remnants of the former Russian fortress in
Zamosc, for slave labor. Around 600 Jewish men from Zamosc were displaced to the Bortatycze Labor
Camp in June 1940. This was a drainage camp where the workers suffered horrific conditions. By that year
in October, around 300 Jews were still at the camp. In November, 1940 the labor camp was liquidated and
the few survivors were redirected back to Zamosc. In summer, 1940, an additional 474 Jews from Zamosc
were sent to the Belzec Labor Camp (later Belzec Death Camp) south of the city. In mid-August 1940,
another 26 Jews were deported to Belzec Labor Camp by Police Battalion 104. An incomplete listing of
deportations and transports from Zamosc is as follows:
Heinrich Himmler decided that the area around Zamość would be the first large area of
German settlement in Poland. The Germans hoped that within ten years about 3 million Germans
would settle in the territory administrated exclusively by the Nazi S.S. In October 1939, the Nazis
selected a Judenrat and forced it to pay a "contribution" of 100,000 zlotys ($20,000) and the
daily delivery of 250 Jews for hard labor. In December 1939 several hundred Jews expelled from
Lodz, Kalo, and Wloclawek in western Poland were settled in Zamosc. In 1941 an open ghetto was
established around Hrubieszowska Street, and the first deportation from the city took place on the eve
of Passover, 1942 (April 11). The entire Jewish population was ordered to gather in the city's market,
whereupon gunfire was directed at the crowd killing hundreds on the spot. About 3,000 Jews were forced to
board waiting trains which took them to the Belzec Death Camp. From May 1-3, 1942, about 3,000 Jews
from Dortmund, Germany and from Czechoslovakia were taken to Zamość. A deportation
that included Jews from these areas as well as Zamosc and nearby towns were sent to Sobibor Death Camp
on May 15-16, 1942, or Belzec Death Camp in six separate transfers in which 13,850 souls were sent to die.
Members of the Judenrat in Zamosc included Bronsztajn, Eliyahu Epstein, Baruch Fiszelson, Mendel
"Mieczyslaw" Garfinkiel, Julian Goldsztein, Stanislaw Hernhut, Bencion Lubliner, Lejb Rozenman, Azriel
Szeps, Aron Szlafrok, Icek Dawid Szlam, Shulim Tiszberg, and Baruch Wilder. Jews complicit in coop-
erating with the Nazis were Garfinkel, Wilder, Abram Arct, Szmul Feldsztajn, Stach Flajszman, Lejzor Szulc,
Szlomo Blumsztajn, and a Jew in charge of the local Jewish police named Alvin Lippmann (from Dortmund).
Those not on the list of collaborators were not complicit in helping the Nazis, and provided resistance.
Overall, Judenrats in the Lublin district -- unlike in other areas of Europe -- were not complying with
Nazi orders. Because of Garfinkel, an outsider, and his henchmen, this was not the case in Zamosc.
The final group living in the Zamosc Ghetto was marched to nearby Izbica on October 16-18, 1942. Many
were shot on the way. From Izbica they were sent on transports to Belzec Death Camp and Sobibor Death
Camp. In this deportation, Jews offered passive resistance and hundreds went into hiding in prepared shelters.
The Nazis brought in Polish firemen to open the shelters by destroying the walls and removing other
obstacles. Several hundred Jews were discovered in hiding and imprisoned for eight days in the city's
cinema hall without food or water; subsequently, all those who were still alive were brought to the
Jewish cemetery and executed. A few hundred Jews were able to escape to the surrounding forests.
Most of them crossed the Bug River, made contact with Soviet guerrillas in the Polesie forest, and
joined various local partisan groups. By May, 1943 all Jews left in the ghetto in Zamosc and in forced
labor camps in the vicinity -- numbering around 1,000 Jews -- were murdered at the Majdanek Camp.
The Germans also evacuated 300 villages in the Zamosc district, uprooting 110,000 Polish peasants
to make room for SS men and Volksdeutsche to settle in the vacated areas. Approximately 10,000
non-Jews perished during this course of ethnic cleansing. Those evacuated by force were sent to
camps in Zamosc Zwierzyniec, or Warsaw. A number of transports were sent to concentration camps
such as Auschwitz or Majdanek. More than 50,000 Poles were deported to the Reich for forced labor
from the Zamosc region, during 1942 and 1943. There was resistance, called the Zamosc Uprising.
The Nazis in charge of carrying out the deportations and murders in Zamosc were: Adolf Bohlmann and
his commander Gotthard Schubert, Rishard Barda, Artur Bernat (or Bernard) from Silesia, Elsa Betke,
Hermann Dolp, Emersleben (possibly Ludolf von Alvensleben), Robert Fekle, Fritz (Fritsche), Heimann,
Klukecki, Robert Kolb (or Kalb), Kurt Korda, Walter Kott, Hermann Krumey, Heinrich Kuhlman,
Heinrich Langenkampfner, Peter Lucht,Bruno Meiert, Neuberger, Heinz Pinkowski, Reibenshein,
Oskar Reichwein, Herman Rogin, Rohlmann, Schmidt, Alois Schwerhoff (Schuerhaf), Ernst Schulz,
Hans Schulz, Jan Siering, Feliks Shyper (Shipper), Max Vogl, Helmut Weihenmaier, and
Maksymilian Zillenbiller. Polish collaborators included the former priest Dobranicki, Morginski,
Kazimierz Olecht (or Olek), the former school music teacher Mazurek.
There are two Jewish cemeteries in Zamość. The original cemetery was set up at the end of the 17th
century and located at Partyzantow Street. The last burial took place in 1941. During the Holocaust, the
Nazis completely destroyed it. The "Province Culture House" was constructed on top of the desecrated
remains of our Jewish ancestors. A second Jewish cemetery was established in 1907, but was
destroyed in the Holocaust. Fragments of numerous tombstones remain, dating only as far back as
1934. In 1950, Zamość Shoah survivors erected a monument and a lapidary made of
tombstones and parts left from the Jewish cemeteries of the city. On the monument is a plaque with the
inscription "Thou shall not kill". In 1991, a metal fence was constructed around the former cemetery.
[In Hebrew] [Surnames] [Books] [Wikipedia - Zamość]
[Economic Life] [Notable Residents] [Photo Archive]
[Zamosc Ghetto] [Ghetto Account] [Zamosc Judenrat List]
[Holocaust] [List of Holocaust Victims from Zamosc]
[Great Synagogue] [Sephardim in Zamość] [Sephardim in Poland]
[List of Pre-War Zamosc Immigrations to America]
[Zamosc Class Photos] [Family Research in Southeast Poland]
[Israeli Organization of Zamość Jewry]
Old Zamosc Organizations:
Zamoscher Society, New York
First Zamoscher Congregation Bikur Cholim, Flushing, NY
Zamosc Progressive Society, New York
Zamoscher Progressive Young Men 375 Workman's Circle, Elmont, New York
Zamoscher Beneficial Association, Progressive Young Men of Philadelphia
Friends of Zamosc, Philadelphia
Zamostcher Relief Committee
Montreal Zamoscher Society, Canada
Zamoscher Yiskor Book Committee, Argentina
Zamoscher Yisker Book Committee, Argentina
Zamostcher Relief Committee - Argentina
Click to subscribe to Zamosc
Learn more at the Belzec Remembrance Project
Inside of the old Jewish synagogue in Zamosc.
Map of the central city of Zamosc. The Great Synagogue built in the 1600s was located at 9 Zamenhofa St.,
which is now a library. The mikvah was at 5 Zamenhofa St., which is presently a night club or jazz club.
Map of the Zamosc metro area. Partyzantow Street, where the original cemetery was located, is now a cultural center.
Prosta Street is where the new cemetery was founded in 1906 and where graves remain and a Holocaust memorial
was constructed. Droga Meczennikow is a rotunda where the museum of martyrology is housed. This was a site of mass
executions of Zamosc Jews during the Holocaust. At 32 Gminna Street (or nearby at Mikalaya Reja) there was a
synagogue constructed in 1872 that was destroyed in 1939. It is now a nursery school.
New Zamosc, the poor part of the city.
New Zamosc, the poor part of the city.
Two families from Zamosc: left, Weinryb family; right, Mendelsohn family.
Three of the six children of the Fuks family: Tauba, Genia, and Ora.
Wertman family of Zamosc, pre-war.
A Jewish family in Zamosc -- the Garfinkels -- pre-war.
Photo is from 1929, Zamosc. Includes Rozeman (top row), Bluma (bottom) and Shalom Krook (bottom). Others unknown.
Photo is from 1929, Zamosc Hechalutz. Includes Menachem Zilbershtein and Shalom Krook.
Line up of Zamosc Jews.
Jews in the Zamosc ghetto.
The famous Zamosc city market / square.
Join the Zamosc group on Facebook!
City of Zamość:
Fiszelzon Holocaust Testimony from Zamosc
Once Film about Zamosc by Ewa Szprynger
Jewish Community of Zamosc
Jewish Resistance and Extermination in Zamosc
Krasnobrod Yizkor Book
Mount Zion Cemetery in Flushing, New York
Old Zamosc Synagogue
Pinkas Hakehillot Polin: Zamosc During the Holocaust
Restored Zamosc Synagogue
Revitalization of the Zamosc Synagogue
Simon Wiesenthal Center - Zamosc
Society for the Preservation of Jewish Heritage in Poland: Zamosc
Weinryb Holocaust Testimony from Zamosc
Yizkor Book Online
Yizkor Book Online (no English)
Zamosc E-mail Discussion Group
Zamosc Ghetto Photos
The Zamosc Ghetto (see also: Life in Zamosc Ghetto)
Zamosc Sephardic Synagogue
Lists of Zamosc:
Surnames in Zamosc Society Cemetery Plots in NY and NJ
People Buried from Zamosc in NY/NJ Plots
First Zamosher Congregation in Flushing, New York
Lists of New York Zamosc Residents
Families of Zamość:
Ghettos, Labor Camps, and Concentration Camps:
Ghetto Listing: Poland
Budzyn Labor Camp (Krasnik)
Chelm Ghetto Uprising
Lipowa Street Labor Camp (Lublin)
Belzec Concentration Camp
Gross Rosen Concentration Camp
Majdanek Concentration Camp (Liberation of Majdanek)
Majdanek sub-camp: Trawniki
Majdanek - A Poem by Rosette Goldstein
Plaszow Concentration Camp (Krakow)
Putskow Concentration Camp
Sobibor Concentration Camp
Treblinka Concentration Camp
Survivors of Grabowiec
Survivors of Komarow
Survivors of Krasnobrod
Survivors of Szczebrzeszyn:
Listing not available
Majdan Tatarski Ghetto Victims (Lublin) from Zamosc:
Sara Brajndla Goldman
Salomon Falek Goldwag
Mojzesz Moszko Perec
Sara Sztajnberg, nee Bajerman
Jakob Dawid Wajs
Lejzor Dawid Wagner
(source: Brama Grodzka - Teatr NN)
Survivors of Zamość:
Note: Additional survivors listed in Pinkas HaNitzolim II
Batsheva Biterman Buchbinder
Zipora Biterman Gajst
Miriam Blechman Reitzenstein (video testimony)
Miriam Blum Domb
Nehemja Bot (Lazer)
Chana Brondwejn Wechter
Brother of Wolf Chowet
(lived in Duszniki-Zdroj)
Basha Betty Drang
His son (unknown Epstein)
Ruchla Fejgenberg Imri
Avromcheh Flug (Plug)
Khosn David Flug (Plug)
Moshe Frank (testimony)
Tauba Fuks Biterman
Raizel Fuks Feldman
Zvi Griner (Fr. Grzegorz Pawlowski)
Pesla Griner Zawierucha
Shepsel Sheldon Griner
Velvel Jungsztajn (Youngstajn)
Lejb Jungsztejn (Yungstejn)
Izak "Itcha" Kaufman
Lejb "Leo" Kliger
Yisrael "Harry" Kranc (testimony)
Henryk Lewandowski (testimony)
Elka Lichtman Peltz
Sam Szulim Lichtman
Roza Luft (went to Sweden)
Dawid Mekler (Makler)
Yakov Neimark (Najman)
Ethel Oberrotman Cydulka
Fr. Gregor Pawlowski (Hersz Griner)
David Peltz (testimony)
Itzeleh Radoshitzer's son
Sara Rozen Damski
Bajla Sobol Schlier
Shimon "Joe" Stone
Miriam Storch Lewent
Mordechai Strigler (poetry)
Majer Szajnbaum (went to Honduras)
Nehemja Szajnbaum (went to Honduras)
Abram Sztybel (Shtibel)
Chaim Sztybel (Shtibel)
Rose Szywic Warner
Irene Wechter Lieblich
Leon Lejb Wechter
Lea Zegen Weiselman
Notable Residents of Zamosc:
Hania Gerson, wife of Philipp Frank
Rabbi Jacob ben Wolf Kranz, the Maggid of Dubno
Rabbi Yitzhak Kranz, son of the Maggid of Dubno
Lejbus Ludwig Lewinsohn
Irene Wechter Liebler
I. L. Peretz
Avoth Yeshurun (Chil Perlmuter)
Rabbis of Zamosc:
Shlomo of Zamosc
Tzvi Hersh Katz, 1687
Meir HaLevi ben Menashe
Nachman (grandson of Aryeh Leib)
Aryeh Leib of Lublin, 1730
Yakov Yitzhak Hochgelernter, 1740
Rabbi Yaacov ben Zeev Krantz, 1786-1804
Yitzhak Yakov Hochgelernter
Tzvi Hirsz Baszka, 1740-1807
Ba'al Shem Harishon
Avraham bar David
Mosze Yehoshua Heszel Wahl
Nachman Szlomo HaLevi
Aryeh Yehuda Yakov Majzeles
Josef Szlomo Szabtai HaLevi Horowitz, 1889-1928
Moszko Chaim Blum
Yitzchak Halpern, cantor
Mordechai HaLevi Horowitz Sternfeld, 1928-WWII
Righteous Gentiles of Zamosc:
Polish Archives at Lublin
Polish Archives at Zamosc
We Remember Jewish Zamosc (Hebrew)
Jewish Records Indexing Poland - Zamosc
Jewish Vital Records in the Polish State Archives
Remember Jewish Zamosc!
Zamosc: Traces of the Past
Remember Your Family:
The DNA Shoah Project: Connecting Descendants
Central Judaica Database - Museum of History of Polish Jews
Grandchildren of Holocaust Survivors on Facebook
Guide to the YIVO Archives
Holocaust News/Events from Generations of the Shoah Int'l
Holocaust Survivors and Victims Database
JewishGen Family Finder
JewishGen Holocaust Database
JRI-Poland: Search for Your Family
Museum of History of Polish Jews Introduction
Yad Vashem: Search for Your Family
Yad Vashem: Submit Names of Your Family Members
Yad Vashem Requests Photos of Shoah Survivors and Families
ISRAEL: Issy Schek, firstname.lastname@example.org
The Israeli Organization of Zamość Jewry & Their Descendants
PO Box 16090, Tel-Aviv 61160, Israel
Zamosc - Jews . com
U.K.: Sheila Grossnass, email@example.com
U.S.: Aaron, LublinJewish@gmail.com