Budzyn Labor Camp.
This website is dedicated to the victims and survivors of the Budzyn and Krasnik Labor Camps. The Krasnik Labor Camp was also called Skret or WIFO.
INDEX/TABLE OF CONTENTS:
1. Budzyn Labor Camp: Overview
2. Known Transports to Budzyn
3. S.S. Men at Budzyn
4. Victims and Survivors of Budzyn
5. Skret - WIFO (Krasnik) Labor Camp: Overview
6. S.S. Men at Skret
7. Known Escapees / Victims at Skret
8. Links and Additional Sources
Budzyn (pronounced Bood-zeen) was established 3 km. north and west of the city of Krasnik, eastern Poland, on the road to Urzedow.
Heinkel established a factory for aircraft construction at Budzyn using S.S. forced labor in April, 1942 at Mielec. Budzyn's site offered 55,000 square meters of space and adequate housing for S.S. members nearby. In an area of 2.68 ha. there were eight wooden barracks. The Budzyn Labor camp was located near Krasnik, Poland and originated as a branch of the Majdanek Concentration Camp in nearby Lublin.
By 1943, the camp numbered about 3,000 prisoners. After 22 October 1943 the camp became an independent concentration camp and was no longer under Majdanek. The camp prisoners were employed in the German Heinkel plant or were involved in forced labor that included ditch-digging, forest-clearing, and extending the camp grounds. A layout of the Budzyn camp is here.
The primary figure who the survivors of the camp remember was the brutal Nazi sadist Reinhold Feix. The daily march by the prisoners to the work sites took from 45 to 60 minutes. The living compound for Jews at the camp was composed of barracks similar to the Majdanek layout. The barracks were surrounded by a barbed wire fence. Much of the forced labor was done under the supervision of German or Polish civilians from the Heinkel airplane company.
Transports to Budzyn included the following:
-- Unknown number of Jews from the Krasnik area (summer, 1942);
-- 400 Jews from Lipowa 7 in Lublin and the Konskowala Ghetto (September, 1942);
-- ~100 Jews from Rachow-Annopol (October, 1942);
-- Unknown number of Jews from the Janiszow Labor Camp (November, 1942);
-- 500 Jews from the Krasnik area (November, 1942);
-- Unknown number of Jews from the Belzyce ghetto (early 1943);
-- Unknown number of Jews from the Hrubieszow ghetto (early 1943);
-- Unknown number of Jews from the Zamosc ghetto;
-- Unknown number of Jews from the Goscieradow ghetto;
-- Unknown number of Jews from the Krychow Labor Camp;
-- Unknown number of Jews from the Hrubieszow ghetto (May, 1943);
-- 807 Jews from Warsaw (April to early May, 1943);
-- 300 Jews from Warsaw (June 18, 1943);
-- 200 Jews from Hrubieszow following the liquidation of the ghetto there (July 10, 1943); and
-- 300 Jewish women from unknown locations (autumn, 1943);
In the camp were Jews from Annopol, Belzyce, Krasnik and Janow Lubelski, Hrubieszow, Urzedow, Minski, Mohylow, Smolensk, Vienna, and Slovakia. The above listing of transports is missing quite a few of the likely transports as well.
As soon as prisoners were killed at Budzyn, new prisoners were shipped in to replace them. By mid-1943, the camp population had risen to approximately 3,000, including 300 women and children.
After the German occupation, Nazi Hermann Goring took over the arms factories at the Polish military-industrial production center at Budzyn. The first S.S. overseer of the camp was the sadist Odilo Globocnik. Ukrainian guards who were trained at Trawniki were in four watchtowers surrounding the camp. Reinhold Feix, another brutal psychopath, was the next commandant of the camp and was remembered by all surviving inmates as sadistic. Feix tortured and murdered Jews daily, particularly at the morning and evening roll call. There were around 75 Nazi guards at the camp. Senior Nazis included Otto Hanke, Werner Mohr, Fritz Tauscher, Heinrich Stoschek, Josef Leipold. Guards included Arthur Axmann, Friedrich Buschbaum, and Mykola Wasylyk. A partial listing of the S.S. men in charge of Buzdyn is available here.
With the help of Tadeusz Szymanski, a group of 13 Jewish prisoners at Budzyn escaped from the camp around January of 1943. They subsequently joined a unit of partisans based near Krasnik and led by Szymanski. It is unlikely anyone from this group of 13 survived the duration of the war. In April 1943, there were 750 Jews in the Budzyn camp, which "due to prolonged undernourishment," were not likely to be sustained. By the second half of 1943, there were around 3,000 Jews in the camp. In May-June of 1944, the camp was evacuated and the prisoners moved to labor camps in Skazysko, Starachowice, Radom, and Plaszow. Only a few of these Jews survived.
Among the Jews who were hanged at the camp were the following:
Mamet from Rovno
Lolek Leon Schechter from Lwow
Among the Jews who were shot by firing squad in the labor camp in Budzyn were the following persons:
- Dajtel (Krakow)
- Aaron Fajngold (Trzydnik)
- Ferst (Lodz)
- Yeshayahu Fersztman (Belzyce)
- Fryda Fiterman (Gesia Street, Krasnik)
- Izrael Fiterman (Gesia Street, Krasnik)
- Josef Golomb (Trzydnik)
- unknown Gonser
- Aba Herszkowicz (Warsaw)
- Bajla Kawa (Gesia Street, Krasnik)
- Berek Kawa (Gesia Street, Krasnik)
- Pejsach Kawa (Gesia Street, Krasnik)
- Izrael Lewkowicz (Warsaw)
- Chaskiel Met (Krasnik)
- Kuszel Mogiluk (Smorgonie)
- Mojzesz Nudelman (Krasnik)
- Anciel Jankiel Pomeranc (Krasnik)
- Dr. Abraham Popko (Warsaw)
- Szwarchard (Krasnik)
- Josef Szwarcman (Janow Lubelski)
- Moshe Wurman (Trzydnik)
[photo available for the above person]
- Zabner (Warsaw)
- Chaskiel Zajdenwerk (Krasnik)
- Fajwel Zajdenwerk (Zaklikow)
Other Jews killed at the camp included Dr. Feinstein (Warsaw), Dr. Friedrich Forster (Vienna); Dr. Mosbach (Germany); Dr. Arndt (Germany); Dr. Glynowiecki (Warsaw); Dr. Jakobowski (Warsaw); Fredek Lewin; Dr. Beck; Dr. Olesker; Mr. Korman (from Krasnik), a pharmacist; Noach Stockman (POW from Belarus); Emil Wertheim (Warsaw); Rysiek Krakowski (Warsaw); unknown Zysman; unknown Zoberman.
On June 10, 1944, Budzyn prisoners were transported to Majdanek. Among those deported were Nuta Weisman from Zakrzowek, Abram Feingold, Icek Fisher, Osiel Fajer, and Dawid Majer from Krasnik. The camp was dissolved on July 22, 1944 and the prisoners staying there were taken to the camps at Plaszow or Mauthausen.
Survivors of the Budzyn camp include the following persons:
From Bedzin: Dr. Dawid Wdowinski
From Belzyce: Yitzchak Feigenbaum, Dvora Fuks, Paula Gold, Sarah Kam, Miriam Kirchenbaum Eizenshtat, Jacob Szabmacher.
From Hrubieszow: Judka Biterman, Avraham Blander, Abraham Dichter, Zalman Gelernter, Shia Kaner, Meyer Kornblit, Meyer Megdal, Dr. Fred Orenstein, Henry Orenstein, Josef Scher, Chana Silver, Lala Silver, Ruth Tatarko, Shlomo Weiner.
From Janow Lubelski/Annopol:: Nachman Blumenkranc, Esther Cajg, Benny Kleiman, Chaim Kuperstock (Kupfershtok), Ester Lang, Majer Rozenblat.
From Kielce: Joseph Koplewicz
From Krasnik: Adelman brothers, Bernard Aptaker, Chaim Meir Beck, Zeev Beck, Roland Blad, Motel Brafman, Shmuel Brand, Chaskiel Brotman, Daniel Datum, Mosze Davidson, Yaakov Arieh Ender, Abram Erenberg, Nehamiah Feder, Ely Fiszman, Gary Flaumenbaum, Izrael Frajhof, Daniel Freiberg, Chaia Goldbaum, Samuel Gutwein, Henry Hochrad, Yehoshua Hochrad, Yitzchak Kaftan, Marty Kaufman, Yitzhak Lamhut, Avraham Lichter, Abe Milechman, Hersh Morenfeld,
Alan Nisenbaum, Shlomoh Peled, Arie Leib Rosenbusch, Leon Schor, Arthur Weisfeld, Nisan Zalc, Hersh Zukerman, Abraham Zysberg, Yaakov Zukert.
From Lodz: unknown Goldstein, a singer
From Lublin: Isak Arbus; Abraham Bergman, Sabina Kleinman (Sara Peri), Luba Laks Elbaum.
From Tyszowce: Tzvi Naor
From Urzedow: Abram Lewin
From Warsaw: Chaim Arbeitman, Marion Chevrin, Jack Eisner, Dr. Henry Fenigstein, David Figman, Rabbi David Friedman, Martin Kogut, David Magid, Abraham Newerstein, Isaak Sobelman, Rabbi Shimson Sztokhamer, Henry Tiger, Dr. Henry Tylbor, Akiba Wasserszprung, Morris Wyszogrod.
From Belarus: Yusef Bamme, Isaac Landau
From Germany: Illse Domke, Erich Floss, Manfred Heymann, Hans Meinhardt, Arthur Menke, Curt Parker, Hermann Pinkus, Hannelore Wolff (Laura Hillman).
From Lithuania: Fedunia Rosenstein (Tzipora Horovitz)
From Ukraine: Hersz Hanfling, Bill Koenig, Marceli Stark.
From Unknown/Other: Max Edelman; Martha and Sidney Engel (lived in NJ); Henry Glenwick; Emanuel Abzug, Hirsz Bojm, Friedrich Fanti, Sol Feigenbaum, Wladyslaw Friedhelm, Yehiel Gutwein, Israel Hener, Aharon Himelblau, Regina Hubel, Yerachamiel Koljfman, Josef Korn, Mendel Korn, Ben Kowitz, Nachman Kranc, Froim Krasnobrod, Yehoshua Laks, Zipora Nahir, Henry Newman, Henry Nusbaum, Yafa Reis, Rafael Shalev, unknown Slutsky (a singer), Marcelli Stark, Zvia Steif, Yehoshua Szarason, Ber Twardagora, Yashayahu Wajsfisz, David Wdowinski, Israel Wein, Henry Weiss. Francisco Wichter.
On the Krasnik-Urzedow road there is a commemorative plaque to the memory of the murdered in Budzyn.
A full listing of those documented to have died at Budzyn is available here. The listing is likely very incomplete.
SKRET LABOR CAMP
The Skret Labor Camp -- also called WIFO -- was located near the synagogue of Krasnik in the ghetto at Szkolna Street and Boznicza Street.
After the Jews of Krasnik were largely destroyed, the camp was established as a slave labor deployment for the remaining Jews, who were kept because of their skills. This group was forced to work for the German company Schmidt & Young. The Skret camp quickly turned into a forced labor camp like many others, with full-time work and surrounded by wire fencing and guards. Alois Groger, Franciszek Bartetzko, Klein, Koplok (or Kiplow) from Latvia, Lacheta, A. Nazaruk and W. Zdonczuk were the S.S. overseers of the Skret camp. A full listing of the S.S. men in charge of Krasnik Camp is available here.
In March 1941 the camp numbered about 200 Jews. The Jewish police in the camp, numbering 12 persons, was led by Pesach Kawa. Groeger excelled at savagery in relation to the prisoners. On the May 20, 1943 he and Kiplow carried out executions of at least 34 prisoners in the WIFO camp. Among those shot were nine children aged from eight to twelve.
During the summer of 1943, Groeger shot the Jewish prisoners Moshe Graf and Moshe Szif. Between November 3-7, 1943, the largest labor camps in the Lublin region were liquidated, and most of the camp inmates in the district were murdered directly or sent to be murdered at Belzec Death Camp or Sobibor Death Camp. After this, only two S.S. labor camps remained in the Lublin district for Jews: the Skret camp in Krasnik and the Budzyn Camp near Krasnik.
The S.S. men at the Skret/Krasnik Labor camp are listed here. A photo of Groeger is available here (he's on the right).
Fearing what was to come, there was a mass escape attempt on February 17, 1944 aided by partisans in Rzeczyca including the Russian Jew Iwan Kasjan (Kasian). Seven Jews managed to escape, and the following Jews were murdered after they were caught while trying to flee:
- Moses Dorn from Litzmannstadt
- Adam Diament from Krasnik
- Daniel Feder from Jozefow
- Shlomo Himelblau (hanged) from Krasnik
- Leiba Hecht from Litzmannstadt
- Lemel Kuchcik (hanged) from Litzmannstadt
- Herszko Powroznik (hanged) from Krasnik
- Gabriel Reinstein (Gawryl Rajnsztajn) from Chodel
- Israel Schor from Krasnik
- Jankiel Schwarzbard from Krasnik
The names of the escapees are listed here. Other known victims of the Skret camp include the following persons:
- Chaya Rozenbusz Bek
- Yitzhak Bek
- Hersh Berman
- Abram Dorn from Lodz
- Shaul Erlich
- Jankiel Erlichson
- Frajda Kawa Fiterman
- Szija Fiterman
- Szamai Grynwald
- Chana Herszon
- Moshe Hofert (Hupert)
- Yisroel Hofert (Hupert)
- Bajla Hofert Kawa
- Ber Kawa
- Pesach Kawa
(former "Jewish police", Krasnik)
- Avraham Simcha Kohen
- Chaskel Kohen
- Kohn from Warsaw
- Lemel or Mendel Kuchczyk
- Szija Nordman
- Aharon Perlzon
- Zyskind Rozenbusz
- Josef Rozenel
- Nuchim Rozenel
- Rzykowski from Vilna
- Josef Szmukler
- Leib Szmukler
- Lejzer Szajngot
- Jankiel Wajsbrat
- Chana Wajsbrat
- Mendel Wajsbrat
- Shimeon Wasserman
- Shamai Lejb Zysberg
Locations of forced labor and extermination camps in Lublin district.
"Codename Barber" by Semmy Stahlhammer
"The Iron Furnace" by George Topas
"I Shall Live" by Henry Orenstein
"Jakub's World" by Jack Terry
"Needle in the Bone" by Caryn Mirriam-Goldberg
- Description of Budzyn Labor Camp
- Feix, the Commandant of Budzyn
- Krasnik Labor Camps (from Silberklang)
- Letters of Resistance at Budzyn
- Skret Labor Camp
- Testimony of Budzyn prisoner Leo Freitag
- Testimony of Budzyn prisoner Samuel Jarniewski
- Testimony of Budzyn prisoner Avraham Karmi
- Testimony of Budzyn prisoner Marcelli Stark